By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

For the first time authors have ventured to study, analyse and investigate the properties of the fuzzy models, the experts opinion and so on. Here the concept of merged Fuzzy Cognitive Maps and Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps are carried out, which are based on merged graphs and merged matrices. This concept is better than the usual combined Fuzzy Cognitive Maps. Further by this new technique we are able to give equal importance to all the experts who work with the problem. ...

In this book, the authors define several new neutrosophic algebraic structures and their related properties. The main focus of this book is to study the important class of neutrosophic rings such as neutrosophic LA-semigroup ring, neutrosophic loop ring, neutrosophic groupoid ring and so on. The authors also construct their generalization in each case to study these neutrosophic algebraic structures in a broader sense. The indeterminacy element “I“ gives rise to a bigger...

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

Study of algebraic structures built using [0, n) happens to be one of an interesting and innovative research. Here in this book authors define non associative algebraic structures using the interval [0, n). Here the authors define two types of groupoids using [0, n) both of them are of infinite order. It is an open conjecture to find whether these new class of groupoids satisfy any of the special identities like Moufang identity or Bol identity or Bruck identity or so on...

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book authors introduce the notion of finite complex modulo integer intervals. Finite complex modulo integers was introduced by the authors in 2011. Now using this finite complex modulo integer intervals several algebraic structures are built. Further the concept of finite complex modulo integers itself happens to be new and innovative for in case of finite complex modulo integers the square value of the finite complex number varies with varying n of Zn. In case o...

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book authors for the first time introduce the notion of distance between any two m x n matrices. If the distance is 0 or m x n there is nothing interesting. When the distance happens to be a value t; 0 < t < m x n the study is both innovating and interesting. The three cases of study which is carried out in this book are:
1. If the difference between two square matrices is large, will it imply the eigen values and eigen vectors of those matrices are distinct? Se...

This volum includes 37 papers of mathematics or applied mathematics written by the author alone or in collaboration with the following co-authors: Cătălin Barbu, Mihály Bencze, Octavian Cira, Marian Niţu, Ion Pătraşcu, Mircea E. Şelariu, Rajan Alex, Xingsen Li, Tudor Păroiu, Luige Vlădăreanu, Victor Vlădăreanu, Ştefan Vlăduţescu, Yingjie Tian, Mohd Anasri, Lucian Căpitanu, Valeri Kroumov, Kimihiro Okuyama, Gabriela Tonţ, A. A. Adewara, Manoj K. Chaudhary, Mukesh Kumar, S...

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book we introduce several algebraic structures on the special fuzzy interval [0, 1). This study is different from that of the algebraic structures using the interval [0, n) n ≠ 1, as these structures on [0, 1) has no idempotents or zero divisors under ×. Further [0, 1) under product × is only a semigroup. However by defining min(or max) operation in [0, 1); [0, 1) is made into a semigroup. The semigroup under × has no finite subsemigroups but under min or max we ...

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book authors for the first time introduce the notion of special type of topological spaces using the interval [0, n). They are very different from the usual topological spaces. Algebraic structure using the interval [0, n) have been systemically dealt by the authors. Now using those algebraic structures in this book authors introduce the notion of special type of topological spaces. Using the super subset interval semigroup special type of super interval topologi...

An AG-groupoid is an algebraic structure that lies in between a groupoid and a commutative semigroup. It has many characteristics similar to that of a commutative semigroup. If we consider x2y2= y2x2, which holds for all x, y in a commutative semigroup, on the other hand one can easily see that it holds in an AG-groupoid with left identity e and in AG**-groupoids. This simply gives that how an AG-groupoid has closed connections with commutative agebras. We extend now for...

This book is a translation from Romanian of "Probleme Compilate şi Rezolvate de Geometrie şi Trigonometrie" (University of Kishinev Press, Kishinev, 169 p., 1998), and includes problems of 2D and 3D Euclidean geometry plus trigonometry, compiled and solved from the Romanian Textbooks for 9th and 10th grade students, in the period 1981-1988, when Florentin Smarandache was a professor of mathematics at the "Petrache Poenaru" National College in Balcesti, Valcea (Romania), ...

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

Acest volum este o versiune nouă, revizuită și adăugită, a "Problemelor Compilate şi Rezolvate de Geometrie şi Trigonometrie" (Universitatea din Moldova, Chișinău, 169 p., 1998), și include probleme de geometrie și trigonometrie, compilate și soluționate în perioada 1981-1988. Gradul de dificultate al problemelor este de la mediu spre greu. Cartea se dorește material didactic pentru elevi, studenți și profesori.
This book is a translation from Romanian of "Probleme Co...

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

The authors define MOD transformations and discuss several interesting features about them. So chapter one of this book serves the purpose of only recalling these properties. Various properties of MOD interval transformation of varying types are discussed. Next the mod planes are introduced mainly to make this book a self contained one. Finally the new notion of higher and mixed multidimensional MOD planes are introduced and their properties analysed. Several problems ar...

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book authors for the first time elaborately study the notion of MOD vector spaces and MOD pseudo linear algebras. This study is new, innovative and leaves several open conjectures. In the first place as distributive law is not true one can define only MOD pseudo linear algebras. Secondly most of the classical theorems true in case of linear algebras are not true in case of MOD pseudo linear algebras. Finding even eigen values and eigen vectors happens to be a cha...

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book for the first time authors study MOD planes using modulo intervals. These planes unlike the real plane have only one quadrant so the study is carried aut in a compact space but infinite in dimension. The authors have given seven MOD planes viz real MOD planes (MOD real plane) finite complex MOD plane, neutrosophic MOD plane, fuzzy MOD plane, (or MOD fuzzy plane), MOD dual number plane, MOD special dual like number plane and MOD special quasi dual number plan...

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book authors answer the question proposed by Florentin Smarandache “Does there exist neutrosophic numbers which are such that they take values differently and behave differently from I; the indeterminate?”. The authors have constructed a class of natural neutrosophic numbers. Further there are more natural neutrosophic numbers in the MOD interval [0, m). This concept is thoroughly analysed in the second chapter. Using all types of MOD planes and MOD intervals, th...

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book the notion of MOD functions are defined on MOD planes. This new concept of MOD functions behaves in a very different way. Even very simple functions like y = nx has several zeros in MOD planes where as they are nice single line graphs with only (0, 0) as the only zero. Further polynomials in MOD planes do not in general follows the usual or classical laws of differentiation or integration. These drawbacks becomes a challenging issue. So study in this directi...

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book authors study the properties of finite real quaternion ring which was introduced in [2000]. Here a complete study of these finite quaternion rings are made. Also polynomial quaternion rings are defined, they happen to behave in a very different way. In the first place the fundamental theorem of algebra, “a nth degree polynomial has n and only n roots”, n is untrue in case of polynomial in polynomial quaternion rings in general. Further the very concept of de...

This research work will give a new direction for applications of fuzzy set theory particularly in algebraic logics, non-classical logics, fuzzy finite state machines, fuzzy automata, fuzzy languages, cognitive modeling, multiagent decision analysis and mathematical morphology. Introducing (∈,∈ ∨q_k)-fuzzy ideals, (∈_γ,∈_γ ∨q_δ)-fuzzy ideals and (∈_γ,∈_γ ∨q_δ)-fuzzy soft ideals in a new non-associative algebraic structure called Abel-Grassmann’s groupoid, discuss severa...

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book the authors for the first time study special type of Euclid squares in the real plane, complex plane, neutrosophic plane, dual number plane and their specializations. This study can be visualized as a blend of algebra, geometry and analysis. There are six such planes and they behave distinctly. From the study it is revealed that each type of squares behave in a different way depending on the plane. The authors define several types of algebraic structures on ...

In this book we introduce a new procedure called α-Discounting Method for Multi-Criteria Decision Making (α-D MCDM), which is as an alternative and extension of Saaty’s Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). It works for any number of preferences that can be transformed into a system of homogeneous linear equations. A degree of consistency (and implicitly a degree of inconsistency) of a decision-making problem are defined. α-D MCDM is afterwards generalized to a set of pref...