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List of extinct animals of Europe

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Title: List of extinct animals of Europe  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: List of extinct animals of Caucasus, Minorcan giant dormouse, Ratas Island lizard, Majorcan giant dormouse, List of extinct animals of Catalonia
Collection: Extinct Animals of Europe, Lists of Extinct Animals by Continent
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List of extinct animals of Europe

The list of extinct animals in Europe features the animals that have become extinct on the European continent and some in other dependent territories of European countries. While most of the animals in the recent Holocene have a human-caused extinction,[1] Pleistocene extinctions and early Holocene extinctions are contested. Many theories of the cause of their extinction have been presented; some human-caused while others as a product of climate change.

Many of the extinct animals were subspecies or color morphs such as the Pied Raven or disputed species like the Tarpan or the Gravenche. Most extinctions occurred in prehistoric times. The species gone extinct in the last 500 years were mostly from peripheral regions of Europe like the Caucasus, the North Atlantic or Mediterranean islands. Except for molluscs, the only species extinct in the heartland of Europe in the last 500 years is the Aurochs, which survives in the form of primitive cattle breeds that possess similar physical features.

Map of Europe


  • Prehistoric extinctions 1
    • Mammals 1.1
    • Birds 1.2
  • Recent extinctions 2
    • Mammals 2.1
    • Birds 2.2
    • Reptiles 2.3
    • Fish 2.4
    • Insect 2.5
    • Sea Anemone 2.6
    • Molluscs 2.7
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Prehistoric extinctions


Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Balearic Giant Shrew
Nesiotites hidalgo
Spain (Balearic Islands) --
Balearic Islands Cave Goat
Myotragus balearicus
3000 BC
Spain (Balearic Islands) Balearic Islands Cave Goat
Canary Islands Giant Rats
Canariomys bravoi and Canariomys tamarani
Before 1500 AD.
Spain (Canary Islands) Canary Islands Giant Rats
Cave Bear
Ursus spelaeus
27500 BC
Europe Cave Bear
Cave Hyena
Crocuta crocuta spelaea
11000 BC
Europe Cave Hyena
Cave Lion
Panthera leo spelaea
10000 BC
Europe Cave Lion
Cretan Dwarf Megacerine
Candiacervus cretensis
Late Pleistocene
Greece (Crete) --
Cretan Dwarf Hippopotamus
Hippopotamus creutzburgi
Middle Pleistocene
Greece (Crete) Cretan Dwarf Hippopotamus
Dwarf Elephants
Mediterranean Islands Sea Dwarf Elephant
Elasmotherium sp.
10000 BC.
Europe Elasmotherium sibiricum
European Ass
Equus hydruntinus
Holocene Epoch
Europe --
Irish Elk
Megaloceros giganteus
5000 BC
Northern Europe Irish Elk
Homotherium sp.
10000 BC.
Europe Homotherium
Majorcan Giant Dormouse
Hypnomys morphaeus
Spain (Majorca) --
Maltese Hippopotamus
Hippopotamus melitensis
Malta --
Minorcan Giant Dormouse
Hypnomys mahonensis
Spain (Minorca) --
Sardinian Dhole
Cynotherium sardous
France (Corsica) and Italy (Sardinia) --
Stephanorhinus sp.
Europe Stephanorhinus
Woolly Mammoth
Mammuthus primigenius
2000 BC.
Europe Woolly Mammoth
Woolly Rhinoceros
Coelodonta antiquitatis
10000 BC.
Europe Woolly Rhinoceros


Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Giant Swan
Cygnus falconeri
Italy (Sicily) and Malta --
Ibiza Rail
Rallus eivissensis
5000 BC.
Spain (Balearic Islands) --

Recent extinctions


Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Bos primigenius[2]
Europe Aurochs
Caspian Tiger
Panthera tigris virgata[3]
Turkey to Caucasus Mountains Caspian Tiger
Caucasian Moose
Alces alces caucasicus
Caucasus Mountains --
Caucasian Wisent
Bison bonasus caucasicus
Caucasus Mountains Caucasian Wisent
Carpathian Wisent
Bison bonasus hungarorum
Carpathian Mountains Carpathian Wisent
Majorcan Hare
Lepus granatensis solisi
Spain (Majorca) --
Portuguese Ibex
Capra pyrenaica lusitanica
Portugal and Spain Portuguese Ibex
Pyrenean Ibex
Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica
2000 and 2009
Andorra, France, Portugal and Spain Pyrenean Ibex
Sardinian Giant Shrew
Nesiotites similis
Italy (Sardinia) --
Sardinian Lynx
Lynx lynx sardiniae
Italy (Sardinia) --
Sardinian Pika
Prolagus sardus[4]
Italy (Sardinia) Sardinian Pika
St Kilda House Mouse
Mus musculus muralis
United Kingdom (St Kilda) St Kilda House Mouse
Equus ferus ferus
Europe Tarpan


Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Great Auk
Pinguinus impennis
Iceland and Northern European Coast Great Auk
Pied Raven
Corvus corax varius
morpha leucophaeus
Denmark (Faroe Islands) Pied Raven


Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Ratas Island Lizard
Podarcis lilfordi rodriquezi
Spain (Minorca) --
Roque Chico de Salmor Giant Lizard
Gallotia simonyi simonyi
Spain (Canary Islands) Roque Chico de Salmor Giant Lizard
Santo Stefano Lizard
Podarcis sicula sanctistephani
Italy (Santo Stefano Island) --


Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Chondrostoma scodrense[5] late 19th century
Albania and Montenegro --
Coregonus bezola[6] 1960s
Lac du Bourget, France --
Coregonus fera[7] 1950
France and Switzerland --
Coregonus restrictus[8] 1890
Lake Morat, Switzerland --
Deepwater Char
Salvelinus profundus [9]
Austria, Germany and Switzerland --
Coregonus hiemalis[10]
France and Switzerland Gravenche
Coregonus oxyrinchus [11]
Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and United Kingdom Houting
Lake Constance Whitefish
Coregonus gutturosus[12]
Austria, Germany and Switzerland Lake Constance Whitefish
Romanogobio antipai[13] 1890
Lower Danube, Romania and Ukraine --
Salvelinus neocomensis[14] 1904
Lake Neuchâtel, Switzerland --
Techirghiol Stickleback
Gasterosteus crenobiontus [15]
Lake Techirghiol, Romania --
Ukrainian Migratory Lamprey
Eudontomyzon sp. nov. 'migratory [16]
Moldova, Russia and Ukraine --


Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Madeiran Large White
Pieris brassicae wollastoni[17]
Portugal (Madeira) Madeiran Large White
British Large Copper
Lycaena dispar dispar[18]
Silver-studded Blue subsp. masseyi
Plebejus argus masseyi[19]
1940s England (Cumbria and Lancashire)
British Large Blue
Maculinea arion eutyphron[19]
Scarce Large Blue subsp. burdigalensis
Phengaris teleius burdigalensis
? France
Perrin's Cave Beetle
Siettitia balsetensis[20]
France --
Tobias' Caddisfly
Hydropsyche tobiasi[21]
Germany --

Sea Anemone

Possibly Extinct
Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Ivell's Sea Anemone
Edwardsia ivelli [22]
Widewater Lagoon, United Kingdom --


22 species and 3 subspecies of gastropods are extinct in Europe since the year 1500.[23] No species of bivalves are known to be extinct in Europe since 1500.[23]

See also


  1. ^ Baillie, J.E.M., Hilton-Taylor, C. and Stuart, S.N. (Editors) 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List Threatened Species. A Global Species Assessment. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. xxiv + 191 pp. Online pdf
  2. ^ Tikhonov, A. (2008). "Bos primigenius (Aurochs)".  
  3. ^ Jackson, P. & Nowell, K. (2011). "Panthera tigris ssp. virgata (Caspian Tiger, Hyrcanian Tiger, Turan Tiger)".  
  4. ^ Smith, A.T. & Johnston, C.H. (2008). "Prolagus sardus (Sardinian Pika)".  
  5. ^ Crivelli, A.J. (2006). "Chondrostoma scodrense".  
  6. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Coregonus bezola".  
  7. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Coregonus fera".  
  8. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Coregonus restrictus".  
  9. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Salvelinus profundus".  
  10. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Coregonus hiemalis".  
  11. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Coregonus oxyrinchus (Houting)".  
  12. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Coregonus gutturosus".  
  13. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Romanogobio antipai".  
  14. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Salvelinus neocomensis".  
  15. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Gasterosteus crenobiontus".  
  16. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Eudontomyzon sp. nov. 'migratory'".  
  17. ^ van Swaay, C., Wynhoff, I., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., López Munguira, M., Maes, D., Sasic, M., Verstrael, T., Warren, M. & Settele, J. (2010). "Pieris wollastoni (Madeiran Large White)".  
  18. ^ Thomas, J., R. Lewington, 2010. The Butterflies of Britain & Ireland. British Wildlife Publishing, Milton on Stour, UK.
  19. ^ a b Emmet, A.M., J. Heath et al. (Ed.), 1990. The Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland Vol. 7 Part 1 (Hesperiidae to Nymphalidae). Harley Books, Colechester, UK. 370p.
  20. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Siettitia balsetensis (Perrin's Cave Beetle)".  
  21. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Hydropsyche tobiasi (Tobias' Caddisfly)".  
  22. ^ "Missing: Possibly Extinct, The Sixth Extinction". The Sixth Extinction. Retrieved December 18, 2013. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Fontaine B., Bouchet P., Van Achterberg K., Alonso-Zarazaga M. A., Araujo R. et al. (2007). "The European union’s 2010 target: Putting rare species in focus." Biological Conservation 139: 167-185. Table 2 on the page 173. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2007.06.012. PDF.

External links

  • The Extinction Website
  • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
  • European Union - Nature and Biodiversity
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