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Juan Francisco Luis

Juan Francisco Luis
23rd Governor of the United States Virgin Islands
In office
January 2, 1978 – January 5, 1987
Lieutenant Henry Millin (1978-1983)
Julio Brady (1983-1987)
Preceded by Cyril King
Succeeded by Alexander Farrelly
3rd Lieutenant Governor of the United States Virgin Islands
In office
January 6, 1975 – January 2, 1978
Governor Cyril King
Preceded by Athniel C. Ottley
Succeeded by Henry A. Millin
Personal details
Born (1940-07-10)July 10, 1940
Vieques, Puerto Rico
Died

June 4, 2011(2011-06-04) (aged 70#REDIRECT

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Political party Independent
Independent Citizens Movement
Spouse(s) Luz Luis
Children 2
Military service
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Army
Rank Sergeant

Juan Francisco Luis (July 10, 1940 – June 4, 2011) was a U.S. Virgin Island politician who served as the third elected Governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands and the territory's 23rd Governor overall.[1] Luis assumed the governorship on January 2, 1978, succeeding Governor Cyril King, who died in office.[2] He held the governor's office from 1978 until 1987, becoming the longest serving Governor in the history of the U.S. Virgin Islands.[3][4]

Biography

Early years

Luis was born in 1940 on the neighboring island of Vieques in Puerto Rico.[1] He moved with his family to Saint Croix-which has a sizeable Puerto Rican community-in the U.S. Virgin Islands when he was two months old.[1] In 1958, Luis graduated from the former Christiansted High School as his class' valedictorian.[3][4]

Luis studied at the Interamerican University of Puerto Rico.[3][4] He moved back to Saint Croix after college, where he took a position as a sixth-grade teacher at the Christiansted Public Grammar School.[5] He also worked as a project office manager for the Department of Housing and Urban Development[3] before serving as a in the U.S. Army.[3]

Luis was honorable discharged from the U.S. Army in 1968, holding the rank of sergeant.[3][4] He returned to St. Croix after his discharge, where he married his wife, the former Luz Maria Guadalupe.[3] He took a series of positions within the civil service and private sector until his election to office in 1972.[3] In 1968, Luis became a personnel administrative officer in the Virgin Islands Department of Health.[5] Luis held several positions in the private sector from 1970 to 1972.[5] He worked for Litwin Corporation as an industrial relations manager.[5] Luis then joined Burns International as an accountant.[5] Finally, Luis was employed as a personnel manager and comptroller at the Estate Carlton Hotel.[5]

Luis and his wife, former U.S. Virgin Islands First Lady Luz Maria Luis, had two children, Juan Francisco Luis Jr. and Carlota Amalia.[1]

Political career

Luis was elected to the 10th Legislature of the Virgin Islands, the territory's unicameral legislative body, in 1972, when he was 32 years old.[1][4] He served one, two-year term as a Senator before seeking higher office in 1974.

Lieutenant Governor

In 1974, two years after his election to the Legislature, gubernatorial candidate Cyril King persuaded Luis to join his ticket as his running mate for lieutenant governor.[1][4] King had founded the Independent Citizens Movement (ICM) in the 1960s, so he and Luis ran for office as the nominees of the ICM.[2] King and Luis were elected as Governor and Lt. Governor in a gubernatorial runoff election held in November 1974, defeating the Democratic ticket of Alexander Farrelly and Ruby Rouss.[1][4]

Governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands

Governor Cyril King died in office of stomach cancer at Knud-Hansen Memorial Hospital at 8:06 p.m. on January 2, 1978.[1] Luis, King's lieutenant governor, was sworn into office as the Governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands ten minutes after King's death to fill the remainder of his term.[2]

On February 21, 1978, Governor Luis appointed banker Henry Millin, a Democrat, as his first lieutenant governor in an announcement broadcast on television and radio.[6] Millin was sworn into office on March 10, 1978, at Government House on Saint Thomas.[7] Millin became Luis' running mate in the 1978 gubernatorial election in November. Luis chose to run for Governor as an independent candidate, dropping his previous political affiliation with the ICM in the election.[4]

Governor Luis and Lt. Governor Millin were elected to a full four-year term on November 7, 1978.[8] Luis defeated the Democratic ticket of Ron de Lugo, the-then Delegate of the U.S. Virgin Islands to the U.S. House of Representatives, and de Lugo's running mate, Senator Eric E. Dawson, in a tough election campaign.[1][4] Luis won 10,978 votes, or 59.2%, while de Lugo placed second with 7,568 votes, or 40.8% of the total votes cast.[8] Luis won all three major islands in the election, including a landslide win on Saint Croix.[8]

Governor Luis and Lt. Governor Millin were inaugurated into a full, four-year term on Thursday, January 4, 1979, at a ceremony in Christiansted.[9]

In 1982, Luis announced his campaign for re-election to a second full term. However, Lieutenant Governor Henry Millin chose to challenge Luis in the 1982 gubernatorial election.[4] Luis needed a new running mate and he selected Julio Brady to replace Millin on the ticket.[4]

Luis was re-elected to a second term on November 2, 1982, in a five-candidate race.[1][10] Luis and Brady came in first with 11,354 votes and were declared the winners of the election.[10] His closest challenger, Lt. Governor Henry Millin, placed second with 4,143 votes.[10] However, the election was challenged in court by fourteen Virgin Islands residents, who argued that blank and spoiled ballots should be counted, which would necessitate a runoff election.[10] By law, a gubernatorial candidate in the U.S. Virgin Islands must garner more than 50% of vote to avoid a runoff.[10] Luis would have fallen just short of 50% if blank and spoiled ballots were counted.[10] A lower court in the Virgin Islands agreed with those arguing for a runoff and ordered the blank and spoiled ballots to be counted, which brought Luis below 50%.[10] However, the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit in Philadelphia rejected the lower court ruling and allowed blank and spoiled ballots to be excluded, giving Luis an outright majority of the total votes cast.[10] Thus, Luis won re-election to a second term without a runoff.[10] Luis and Lt. Governor Julio Brady were sworn into a second term in January 1983.

Governor Luis created a new office, the federal programs coordinator, which worked to better coordinate federal funding and cultivate better relations with U.S. federal agencies, such as the Office of Insular Affairs.[4] Luis is credited by many, including current Governor John de Jongh, with the overhaul and creation of the U.S. Virgin Islands' present health care system during his time in office.[3] Luis successfully lobbied for federal funding which was used to construct most of the U.S. Virgin Islands modern hospitals, including the Governor Juan F. Luis Hospital & Medical Center on Saint Croix, the Myrah Keating Smith Clinic on Saint John and the Schneider Regional Medical Center on Saint Thomas.[3] In education, Luis abolished the practice of holding two separate sessions of school at the same school during the day.[3]

Luis spearheaded the expansion of the Henry E. Rohlsen Airport on Saint Croix and the Cyril E. King Airport on Saint Thomas.[4] He also oversaw the construction of other infrastructure projects, including the creation of a container terminal on Saint Croix.[4] The first desalination plant was constructed by the V.I. Water and Power Authority during Luis' administration.[4]

Governor Luis was also credited with launching the political careers of some of the U.S. Virgin Islands' most prominent politicians.[4] They included former Senator Holland Redfield, whom he appointed to the Public Services Commission and encouraged to run for the Legislature in 1984, and Governor John de Jongh, whom Luis nominated to the V.I. Industrial Development Commission, which launched de Jongh's career in public service.[4]

Luis was barred from seeking a third consecutive term in the 1986 gubernatorial election due to term limits .[1] He was succeeded by Alexander Farrelly on January 5, 1987.

Later life

In 1990, Luis once again ran for election as Governor. However, he was defeated by then Governor Alexander Farrelly, who won re-election.[1]

Juan Francisco Luis was hospitalized at the Governor Juan F. Luis Hospital & Medical Center on St. Croix on June 3, 2011.[1] He died at the hospital on June 4, 2011, at the age of 70.[1] His funeral mass was held at the Holy Cross Catholic Church in Christiansted.[3] Luis was buried at Kingshill Cemetery following a graveside service, which included a full military tribute by the Virgin Islands National Guard.[3]

Luis was survived by his wife, former First Lady Luz Maria Guadalupe Luis; their children, Carlotta Amalia Luis and Juan Francisco Luis Jr.; his sister, Lydia Cintron-Monell; and two brothers, Carlos Monell and Esteban Monell Jr.[3]

Luis died less than a week after the passing of another U.S. Virgin Islands political figure, former Lt. Governor Derek Hodge.[11]

See also

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
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Political offices
Preceded by
Cyril Emanuel King
Governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands
1978–1987
Succeeded by
Alexander A. Farrelly

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