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Arlington National Cemetery

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Title: Arlington National Cemetery  
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Subject: Jerauld Wright, Robert F. Kennedy, State funeral of John F. Kennedy, John J. Pershing, Kenneth M. Taylor
Collection: 1864 Establishments in Virginia, Arlington National Cemetery, Cemeteries on the National Register of Historic Places in Virginia, Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemeteries, Historic American Buildings Survey in Virginia, Historic Districts in Virginia, Monuments and Memorials in Virginia, National Cemeteries, National Register of Historic Places in Arlington County, Virginia, Protected Areas of Arlington County, Virginia, Robert E. Lee, United States National Cemeteries, Visitor Attractions in Arlington County, Virginia
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Arlington National Cemetery

Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery and the Netherlands Carillon in December 2012.
Details
Established May 13, 1864
Location Arlington County, Virginia
Country  United States of America
Coordinates
Type Public
Owned by U.S. Department of the Army
Size 624 acres (253 ha)
Number of graves 400,000[1]
Website .mil.ArlingtonCemeterywww

Arlington National Cemetery is a United States military cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., in whose 624 acres (253 ha) have been buried the dead of the nation's conflicts beginning with the American Civil War, as well as reinterred dead from earlier wars.

The cemetery was established during the Civil War on the grounds of Arlington House, which had been the estate of the family of Confederate general Robert E. Lee's wife Mary Anna (Custis) Lee (a great-granddaughter of Martha Washington). The cemetery, along with Arlington House, Memorial Drive, the Hemicycle, and the Arlington Memorial Bridge, form the Arlington National Cemetery Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in April 2014.[2][3] Like nearly all federal installations in Arlington County, it has a Washington mailing address.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Recent expansion 1.1
    • 150th anniversary 1.2
    • Arlington Woods expansion controversy 1.3
    • Management turnover 1.4
  • Sections 2
  • Grave markers, niches and headstones 3
  • Arlington Memorial Amphitheater 4
  • Memorials 5
    • Tomb of the Unknowns 5.1
    • Other memorials 5.2
  • Burial procedures 6
    • Burial criteria 6.1
    • Inurnment criteria for columbarium 6.2
    • Prohibitions against interment or memorialization 6.3
  • Notable burials 7
  • 2010 mismanagement controversy 8
  • See also 9
  • Notes 10
  • References 11
  • External links 12

History

Custis Lee Mansion with Union soldiers on lawn

  • Arlington National Cemetery in Find a Grave website
  • Old Potting House, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Arlington County, VA at the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS)
  • Arlington National Cemetery, Old Amphitheater, Arlington, Arlington County, VA at HABS
  • Arlington National Cemetery, Sheridan Gate (Center Gateway) (HABS) at arlingtoncemetery.net
  • Arlington National Cemetery, Ord-Weitzel Gate, Arlington, Arlington County, VA at HABS
  • Arlington National Cemetery, USS Maine Memorial, Arlington, Arlington County, VA at HABS
  • Arlington National Cemetery, Columns & Gates, Arlington, Arlington County, VA at HABS
  • Arlington National Cemetery Documentary produced by WETA-TV
  • CWGC: Arlington National Cemetery

External links

  • Atkinson, Rick. Where Valor Rests: Arlington National Cemetery. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2007. ISBN 1426200897
  • Chase, Enoch Aquila. "The Arlington Case: George Washington Custis Lee against the United States of America." Records of the Columbia Historical Society. 31/32: 1930.
  • National Capital Region. National Park Service. U.S. Department of the Interior. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 2001.Arlington House: The Robert E. Lee Memorial Cultural Landscape Report.Cultural Landscape Program.
  • Dennee, Tim. "African-American Civilians Interred in Section 27 of Arlington National Cemetery, 1864-1867." Friends of Freedmen's Cemetery. FreedmensCemetery.org. 2012. Accessed 2012-07-09.
  • Hansen, Harry. The Civil War: A History. New York: Signet, 2001.
  • McCaslin, Richard B. Lee in the Shadow of Washington. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2004. ISBN 0807126969
  • Poole, Robert M. On Hallowed Ground: The Story of Arlington National Cemetery. New York, N.Y.: Walker & Co., 2009. ISBN 0802715486 plus Webcast Author Interview at the Pritzker Military Museum & Library on May 27, 2010

References

  1. ^ a b January 25, 2012.Washington Post.Davenport, Christian. "Arlington Cemetery Trying to Account for Missing $12 Million."
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b Cultural Landscape Program, p. 62.
  5. ^
  6. ^ Hansen, 2001, p. 69.
  7. ^ Chase, 1930, p. 173.
  8. ^ McCaslin, 2004, p. 79-80.
  9. ^ Atkinson, 2007, p. 25.
  10. ^ Chase, 1930, p. 175-176.
  11. ^ Chase, 1930, p. 176.
  12. ^ a b c Cultural Landscape Program, p. 84.
  13. ^ Cultural Landscape Program, p. 88.
  14. ^ Cultural Landscape Program, p. 86.
  15. ^ Dennee, p. 4. Accessed 2012-07-09.
  16. ^ Cultural Landscape Program, p. 85.
  17. ^ Eric Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (New York: W W Norton & Company, 2010), 258
  18. ^ Dennee, p. 5, 7-8. Accessed 2012-07-09.
  19. ^ Poole, p. 191.
  20. ^ a b
  21. ^ a b
  22. ^ (1) http://www.arlingtoncemetery.mil/History/Facts/ArlingtonHouse.aspx
    (2)  
  23. ^
  24. ^ Leipold, J.D. "Veterans' Cemeteries Across America Receive Wreaths." Army.mil News. December 15, 2006. Accessed 2013-07-29.
  25. ^
  26. ^ a b Title XXVIII—General Provisions: Subtitle C—Land Conveyances: Section 2821(a). Transfer of lands, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia, Public Law 104-201: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997, Division B: Military Construction Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997,  1996-09-23. Retrieved on 2012-12-24.
  27. ^ a b c (text of full article available at arlingtoncemetery.net)
  28. ^ a b c d e Title XXVIII—General Provisions: Subtitle E—Other Matters: Section 2863(h): Alternate Site for United States Air Force Memorial, Preservation of Open Space on Arlington Ridge Tract, and Related Land Transfer At Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia: Land Transfer, Section 29, Public Law 107-107: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002, Division B: Military Construction Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002,  2001-12-28. Retrieved on 2013-03-16.
  29. ^ Title XVIII—General Provisions: Subtitle F—Expansion of Arlington National Cemetery: Section 2881. Transfer from Navy Annex, Arlington, Virginia, Public Law 106-65: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000, Division B: Military Construction Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000,  1999-10-05. Retrieved on 2013-03-20.
  30. ^ Title XVIII—General Provisions: Subtitle F—Expansion of Arlington National Cemetery: Section 2882. Transfer from Fort Myer, Arlington, Virginia, Public Law 106-65: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000, Division B: Military Construction Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000,  1999-10-05. Retrieved on 2013-03-20.
  31. ^ a b
  32. ^ Title XXVIII—General Provisions: Subtitle D—Land Conveyances: Part IV — Other Conveyances: Section 2881. Land Exchange, Arlington County, Virginia, Public Law 108-375: Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005, Division B: Military Construction Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005,  2004-10-28. Retrieved on 2013-03-20.
  33. ^ a b c
  34. ^ a b c
  35. ^ a b
  36. ^ a b (1)
    (2)
  37. ^ "County Reaches Agreement With Army Over Arlington Nat'l Cemetery Expansion." ARLnow.com. January 10, 2013. Accessed 2013-02-04.
  38. ^ a b Division E—Military Construction and Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2013: Title III: Related Agencies: Department of Defense—Civil: Cemeterial Expenses, Army: Construction, Public Law 113-6: Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013 (127 Stat. 198),  2013-03-26. Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  39. ^
  40. ^ (1)
    (2) Coordinates of Section 29:
  41. ^ a b
  42. ^
  43. ^ a b c d e f
  44. ^
  45. ^ (1)
    (2)
  46. ^ a b
  47. ^
  48. ^ (1)
    (2)
  49. ^ in Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Environmental Assessment, March 2013, pp. 222-328.
  50. ^ in Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Environmental Assessment, March 2013, (Appendix F: Comments to Draft Millennium EA:Public Comment Period: 6 December 2012 to 21 January 2013), p. 259.
  51. ^ (1)
    (2)
  52. ^ a b (1)
    (2)
  53. ^ (1)
    (2)
  54. ^ a b c d
  55. ^ in Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Final Environmental Assessment, June 2013, Appendix I (Tree Inventory and Analysis), p. 13.
  56. ^ (1)
    (2)
    (3)
  57. ^ (1)
    (2)
  58. ^
  59. ^ a b
  60. ^
  61. ^
  62. ^
  63. ^
  64. ^
  65. ^
  66. ^ a b
  67. ^
  68. ^
  69. ^
  70. ^
  71. ^
  72. ^
  73. ^
  74. ^
  75. ^
  76. ^ Poole, Robert M. On Hallowed Ground: The Story of Arlington National Cemetery. New York: Walker, 2009
  77. ^
  78. ^
  79. ^ Juell, Rod. “50-cent Arlington Amphitheater”, Arago: people, postage & the post, National Postal Museum online, viewed March 12, 2014.
  80. ^
  81. ^
  82. ^ Smith, Philip, Lao Veterans of America, Inc. Washington, D.C. (15 May 1997), http://www.laoveteransofamerica.org
  83. ^ "Fast Track: 'Place of Remembrance' Planned for Arlington." Navy Times. June 25, 2012.
  84. ^ Location of Arlington House flagpole:
  85. ^ Hybrid satellite image/street map from WikiMapia
  86. ^
  87. ^
  88. ^
  89. ^
  90. ^ a b
  91. ^
  92. ^
  93. ^
  94. ^
  95. ^

Notes

See also

The mismanagement controversy included a limitation on mass media access to funerals, which also proved controversial. Until 2005, the cemetery's administration gave free access, with the family's permission, to the press to cover funerals at the cemetery. According to the Washington Post in 2008, the cemetery gradually imposed increasing restrictions on media coverage of funerals beginning about 2005.[95]

In March 2011, as a result of the problems discovered, Kathryn Condon, the recently appointed director of the Army Cemeteries Program, announced that the cemetery's staff had been increased from 102 to 159. She added that the cemetery was also acquiring additional equipment because, "They didn't have the proper equipment to do the job really to the standard they needed to do."[94]

On June 9, 2010, [91][92] Both Metzler and Higgenbotham retired soon after the investigation commenced.[93]

2010 mismanagement controversy

Two of the astronauts who were killed in the 27 January 1967 flash fire inside the Apollo 1 Command Module, Gus Grissom and Roger Chaffee, are buried at Arlington.

Among the most frequently visited sites in the cemetery is the grave of President John F. Kennedy, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis who is buried nearby along with their son Patrick and their stillborn daughter Arabella. His remains were interred there on March 14, 1967, a reinterment from his original Arlington burial site, some 20 feet (6.1 m) away, where he was buried in November 1963. The grave is marked with an "eternal flame". The remains of his brothers, Senator Robert F. Kennedy and Senator Edward M. "Ted" Kennedy, are buried nearby. The latter two graves are marked with simple crosses and footstones. On December 1, 1971, Robert Kennedy's body was re-interred 100 feet (30 m) from its original June 1968 burial site.

Five state funerals have been held at Arlington: those of Presidents William Howard Taft and John F. Kennedy, his two brothers, Senator Robert F. Kennedy and Senator Edward "Ted" Kennedy, and General of the Armies John J. Pershing. Whether or not they were wartime service members, U.S. presidents are eligible to be buried at Arlington, since they oversaw the armed forces as commanders-in-chief.

The first soldier to be buried in Arlington was Private William Henry Christman of Pennsylvania on May 13, 1864.[89] As of May 2006, there were 367 Medal of Honor recipients buried in Arlington National Cemetery, nine of whom are Canadian.

The grave marker of President John F. Kennedy

Notable burials

Also prohibited under the same statute are those determined, with clear and convincing evidence, to have avoided such conviction by death or flight.

Congress has from time to time created prohibited categories of persons that, even if otherwise eligible for burial, lose that eligibility. One such prohibition is against certain persons who are convicted of committing certain state or federal capital crimes, as defined in 38 U.S. Code § 2411. Capital crime is a specifically defined term in the statute, and for state offenses can include offenses that are eligible for a life sentence (with or without parole). The reasoning for this provision originally was to prevent Timothy McVeigh from being eligible at Arlington National Cemetery, but it has since been amended to prevent others.[88]

Prohibitions against interment or memorialization

Due at least partly to the lack of space at the cemetery for ground burial, standards for inurnment (burial of cremated remains) in the columbarium are currently much less restrictive than for ground burial at the Cemetery. In general, any former member of the armed forces who served on active duty (other than for training) and whose last service terminated honorably is eligible for inurnment. Eligibility for inurnment is described fully in 32 C.F.R. § 553.15a.

Inurnment criteria for columbarium

  • The widow or widower of:
    • a member of the armed forces who was lost or buried at sea or fell out of a plane or officially determined to be permanently absent with a status of either missing or missing in action.
    • a member of the armed forces who is interred in a US military cemetery overseas that is maintained by the American Battle Monuments Commission.
  • The spouse, minor child, or permanently dependent child of any person already buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
  • The parents of a minor child, or permanently dependent child whose remains, based on the eligibility of a parent, are already buried at Arlington. A spouse divorced from the primary eligible, or widowed and remarried, is not eligible for interment.
  • Provided certain conditions are met, a former member of the armed forces may be buried in the same grave with a close relative who is already buried and is the primary eligible.
Respectful silence is requested at Arlington.
  • Any active-duty member of the armed forces (except those members serving on active duty for training only).
  • Any veteran who is retired and eligible for retirement pay from service in the armed forces (including service members retired from a reserve component who served a period of active duty (other than for training)).
  • Any former member of the armed forces separated honorably prior to October 1, 1949, for medical reasons and who was rated at 30% or greater disabled effective on the day of discharge.
  • Any former member of the armed forces who has been awarded one of the following decorations:
  • Any former member of the armed forces who served on active duty (other than for training) and who held any of the following positions:
    • An elective office of the U.S. Government (such as a term in Congress).
    • Office of the Chief Justice of the United States or of an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
    • An office listed, at the time the person held the position, in 5 USC 5312 or 5313 (Levels I and II of the Executive Schedule).
    • The chief of a mission who was at any time during his/her tenure classified in Class I under the provisions of Section 411, Act of 13 August 1946, 60 Stat. 1002, as amended (22 USC 866) or as listed in State Department memorandum dated March 21, 1988.
  • Any former prisoner of war who, while a prisoner of war, served honorably in the active military, naval, or air service, whose last period of military, naval or air service terminated honorably and who died on or after November 30, 1993.
  • The spouse, widow or widower, minor child, or permanently dependent child, and certain unmarried adult children of any of the above eligible veterans.

The persons specified below are eligible for ground burial in Arlington National Cemetery, unless otherwise prohibited.[87] The last period of active duty of former members of the armed forces must have ended honorably. Interment may be of casketed or cremated remains.

Part 553 of Title 32 of the Code of Federal Regulations establishes regulations for Arlington National Cemetery, including eligibility for interment (ground burial) and inurnment. Due to limited space, the criteria for ground burial eligibility are more restrictive than at other national cemeteries, as well as more restrictive than for inurnment in the columbarium.

Burial criteria

In addition to in-ground burial, Arlington National Cemetery also has one of the larger columbaria for cremated remains in the country. Four courts are currently in use, each with 5,000 niches. When construction is complete, there will be nine courts with a total of 50,000 niches; capacity for 100,000 remains. Any honorably discharged veteran is eligible for inurnment in the columbarium, if s/he served on active duty at some point in her/his career (other than for training).[86]

Military funeral procession in Arlington National Cemetery, July, 1967

With more than 400,000 interments,[1] Arlington National Cemetery has the second-largest number of burials of any national cemetery in the United States. The largest of the 130 national cemeteries is the Calverton National Cemetery, on Long Island, near Riverhead, New York, which conducts more than 7,000 burials each year.

Funerals, including interments and inurnments, average between 27-30 per day. The cemetery conducts approximately 6,900 burials each year.[66]

The flags in Arlington National Cemetery are flown at half-staff from a half hour before the first funeral until a half hour after the last funeral each day. Funerals are normally conducted five days a week, excluding weekends.[84][85]

Arlington House flag flying at half-staff. The flag is lowered during interments.

Burial procedures

In 2012, legislation began moving through Congress to approve a "Place of Remembrance" at Arlington National Cemetery. The memorial will be an ossuary designed to contain fragments of remains which are unidentifiable through DNA analysis. The remains will be cremated before placement in the memorial.[83]

The Laos Memorial, or Lao Veterans of America memorial, dedicated to Lao and Hmong veterans who served with US Special Forces and CIA advisors during the Vietnam War, to defend the Royal Kingdom of Laos from the North Vietnamese invasion of Laos is located on Grant Avenue near the eternal flame memorial to U.S. President John F. Kennedy.[82]

The Women in Military Service for America Memorial is adjacent to the Ceremonial Entrance to Arlington National Cemetery.

On June 25, 1925, President Calvin Coolidge approved a request to erect a Commonwealth Cross of Sacrifice with the names of all the citizens of the USA who lost their lives fighting in the Canadian forces during World War I. The monument was dedicated November 11, 1927 and after the Korean War and World War II the names of US citizens who died in those conflicts were added.

The Lockerbie Cairn is a memorial to the 270 killed in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. The memorial is constructed of 270 stones, one for each person killed in the disaster. In section 64, a memorial to the 184 victims of the September 11 attacks on the Pentagon was dedicated September 11, 2002. The memorial takes the shape of a pentagon, and lists the names of all the victims that were killed. Unidentified remains from the victims are buried beneath it.[81]

The Space Shuttle Challenger Memorial was dedicated on May 20, 1986, in memory of the crew of flight STS-51-L, who died during launch on January 28, 1986. Transcribed on the back of the stone is the text of the John Gillespie Magee, Jr. poem High Flight, which was quoted by then President Ronald Reagan when he addressed the disaster. Although many remains were identified and returned to the families for private burial, some were not, and were laid to rest under the marker. Two crew members, Scobee and Smith, are buried in Arlington. On February 1, 2004, NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe dedicated a similar memorial to those who died when the Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry on February 1, 2003.[80] Astronauts Laurel Clark, David Brown and Michael Anderson, who were killed in the Columbia disaster, are also buried in Arlington.

Near the Tomb of the Unknowns stands the USS Maine Mast Memorial, which commemorates the 266 men who lost their lives aboard the USS Maine. The memorial is built around a mast salvaged from the Maine’s wreckage. The USS Maine Memorial served as the temporary resting place for foreign heads of state or government, Manuel L. Quezon of the Philippines and Ignacy Jan Paderewski of Poland, who died in exile in the United States during World War II.

There are several memorials on the grounds of Arlington National Cemetery. But due to the lack of space for burials and the large amount of space that memorials take up, the U.S. Army now requires a joint or concurrent resolution from Congress before it will place new memorials at Arlington.

The Maine Mast Memorial

Other memorials

A commemorative stamp was issued on November 11, 1922, the first anniversary of the first entombment picturing the Amphitheater. It encompasses the original Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. The remains of an unidentified WW I American soldier was entombed on Armistice Day, November 11, 1921, later covered in 1931 by a more elaborate marble sarcophagus.[79]

Arlington Amphitheater
1922 issue

Each turn the guard makes precise movements and followed by a loud click of the heels as he snaps them together. The guard is changed every half hour during daylight in the summer, and every hour during daylight in the winter and every two hours at night (when the cemetery is closed to the public), regardless of weather conditions.

Twenty-one was chosen because it symbolizes the highest military honor that can be bestowed—the 21-gun salute.

After each turn, the Guard executes a sharp "shoulder-arms" movement to place the weapon on the shoulder closest to the visitors to signify that the Guard stands between the Tomb and any possible threat.

  1. Marches 21 steps down the black mat behind the Tomb.
  2. Turns, faces east for 21 seconds.
  3. Turns and faces north for 21 seconds.
  4. Takes 21 steps down the mat.
  5. Repeats the routine until the soldier is relieved of duty at the Changing of the Guard.

The Tomb of the Unknowns has been perpetually guarded since July 2, 1937, by the U.S. Army. The 3rd U.S. Infantry Regiment ("The Old Guard") began guarding the Tomb on April 6, 1948. There is a meticulous routine which the guard follows when watching over the graves.[78] The Tomb Guard:

  • Unknown Soldier of World War I, interred November 11, 1921. President Warren G. Harding presided.
  • Unknown Soldier of World War II, interred May 30, 1958. President Dwight D. Eisenhower presided.
  • Unknown Soldier of the Korean War, also interred May 30, 1958. President Dwight Eisenhower presided again, Vice President Richard Nixon acted as next of kin.
  • Unknown Soldier of the Vietnam War, interred May 28, 1984. President Ronald Reagan presided. The remains of the Vietnam Unknown were disinterred, under the authority of President Bill Clinton, on May 14, 1998, and were identified as those of Air Force 1st Lt. Michael J. Blassie, whose family had them reinterred near their home in St. Louis, Missouri. It has been determined that the crypt at the Tomb of the Unknowns that contained the remains of the Vietnam Unknown will remain empty.

It was initially named the "Tomb of the Unknown Soldier." Other unknown servicemen were later entombed there, and it became known as the "Tomb of the Unknowns", though it has never been officially named. The soldiers entombed there are:

The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier stands on top of a hill overlooking Washington, D.C. One of the more well-attended sites at the Cemetery, the tomb is made from Yule marble quarried in Colorado. It consists of seven pieces, with a total weight of 79 short tons (72 metric tons). The tomb was completed and opened to the public April 9, 1932, at a cost of $48,000.

The Tomb of the Unknowns with guards

Tomb of the Unknowns

Memorials

Before the Arlington Memorial Amphitheater was completed in 1921, important ceremonies were held at what is now known as the "Old Amphitheater." This structure sits where Robert E. Lee once had his gardens. The amphitheater was built in 1868 under the direction of Civil War General John A. Logan. Gen. James A. Garfield was the featured speaker at the Decoration Day dedication ceremony, May 30, 1868, later being elected as President of the United States 1881. The amphitheater has an encircling colonnade with a latticed roof that once supported a web of vines. The amphitheater has a marble dais, known as "the rostrum", which is inscribed with the U.S. national motto found on the Great Seal of the United States, E pluribus unum ("Out of many, one"). The rostrum was designed by General Montgomery C. Meigs, then Quartermaster General of the U.S. Army.[76] The amphitheater seats 1,500 people and has hosted speakers such as William Jennings Bryan.[77]

The Tomb of the Unknowns is part of the Arlington Memorial Amphitheater. The Memorial Amphitheater has hosted state funerals and Memorial Day and Veterans Day ceremonies. Ceremonies are also held for Easter. About 5,000 people attend these holiday ceremonies each year. The structure is mostly built of Imperial Danby marble from Vermont. The Memorial Display room, between the amphitheater and the Tomb of the Unknowns, uses Botticino stone, imported from Italy. The amphitheater was the result of a campaign by Ivory Kimball to construct a place to honor America's servicemen/women. Congress authorized the structure on March 4, 1913. Woodrow Wilson laid the cornerstone for the building on October 15, 1915. The cornerstone contained 15 items including a Bible and a copy of the Constitution.[75]

The interior of Memorial Amphitheater

Arlington Memorial Amphitheater

Between 1947 and 2001, privately purchased markers were permitted in the cemetery. The sections in which the cemetery permitted such markers are nearly filled and the cemetery generally does not allow new burials in these sections.[74] Nevertheless, the older sections of the cemetery have a wide variety of private markers placed prior to 2001, including an artillery piece.

Prior to 2007, the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) did not allow the use of the pentacle as an "emblem of belief" on tombstones in military cemeteries. This policy was changed following an out-of-court settlement on 23 April following a series of lawsuits by the family of Patrick Stewart against the VA.[71][72][73]

The United States Department of Veterans Affairs oversees the National Cemetery Administration's orders[67] for placement of inscriptions and faith emblems at no charge to the estate of the deceased, submitted with information provided by the next of kin[68] that is placed on upright marble headstones or columbarium niche covers. The Department of Veterans Affairs currently offers 57 authorized faith emblems for placement on markers to represent the deceased's faith.[69] This number has grown in recent years due to legal challenges to policy.[70]

Grave markers, niches and headstones

Arlington National Cemetery is divided into 70 sections, with some sections in the southeast and western part of the cemetery reserved for future expansion.[61] Section 60, in the southeast part of the cemetery, is the burial ground for military personnel killed in the Global War on Terror since 2001.[62] Section 21, also known as the Nurses Section, is the area of Arlington National Cemetery where many nurses are buried and is the site of the Spanish-American War Nurses Memorial and the Nurses Memorial.[63] Another section—Chaplains Hill—includes monuments to Jewish, Protestant, and Roman Catholic military chaplains. In 1901, Confederate soldiers buried at the Soldiers' Home and various locations within Arlington were reinterred in a Confederate section that was authorized by Congress in 1900. On June 4, 1914, the United Daughters of the Confederacy dedicated the Confederate Memorial designed by Moses Ezekiel. Upon his death in 1917, Ezekiel was buried at the base of the monument as he was a veteran of the Confederate army.[64] All Confederate headstones in this section are peaked rather than rounded.[65] More than 3,800 former slaves, called "Contrabands" during the Civil War, are buried in Section 27. Their headstones are designated with the word "Civilian" or "Citizen".[66]

Arlington National Cemetery

Sections

The Army removed Lechner as superintendent of Arlington National Cemetery in early August 2015 after a performance review "called into question his ability to serve successfully as a senior leader". The Army declined to elaborate further, and Hallinan was temporarily appointed ANC superintendent until a successor could be found.[60]

In May 2014, Hallinan stepped down and was replaced by Jack E. Lechner, Jr. as superintendent of Arlington National Cemetery. Lechner had been a funeral director for 10 years in the private sector before joining the U.S. Army. He rose to the rank of colonel (retiring in November 2011), having spent 2008 to 2010 as chief of the Supply Division of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, overseeing the equipping of Iraqi and Afghanistan national security forces. Since June 2010, he had served as executive officer and deputy superintendent of Arlington National Cemetery under Hallinan.[59]

After the cemetery's management controversy began to end, the Army appointed Patrick K. Hallinan the acting superintendent of Arlington National Cemetery in June 2010. He was promoted permanently to the position in October 2010. Hallinan had previously worked for the Office of Field Programs in the National Cemetery Administration, an agency of the United States Department of Veterans' Affairs. In that capacity, Hallinan had oversight of 131 national cemeteries, national cemetery policy, procedures, and operations.[58] Hallinan was promoted to Executive Director of the Army National Cemeteries program upon the retirement of Kathryn Condon in spring 2014.[59]

Management turnover

On June 5, 2013, after reviewing 100 public comments that it had received on the revised EA, the Corps of Engineers released a final EA and a signed FONSI for the Millennium Project.[52][53] The Final EA and the FONSI retained Alternative E as the preferred alternative.[52] The final EA stated that, of the 905 trees to be removed, 771 trees were healthy native trees that had diameters between 6 and 41 inches.[54][55] The project would remove approximately 211 trees from a less than 2.63 acres (1.06 ha) area containing a portion of a 145-year-old forest that stood within the property boundaries of a historic district that a National Register of Historic Places nomination form for Arlington House had described in 1966.[54][56] About 491 trees would be removed from an area of trees that was approximately 105 years old.[54] Approximately 203 trees with ages of 50 to 145 years would be removed from a former picnic area.[54] At a public hearing on July 11, 2013, the National Capital Planning Commission approved the site and building plans for the Millennium Project.[57]

On March 12, 2013, the Corps of Engineers released a revised EA for the Millennium Project.[47][48] The revised EA contained copies of a number of public comments on the draft EA that had criticized the project and parts of the EA while proposing alternative locations for new military burials near the Cemetery and elsewhere.[49] However, the Department of Forestry of the Commonwealth of Virginia found that, based on information in the draft EA, the project would not have a significant adverse impact on the Commonwealth's forest resources.[50] The revised EA did not change the preferred alternative (Alternative E) or the Army's plans to prepare and sign the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) that the draft EA had described.[51]

On December 12, 2012, the United States Army Corps of Engineers asked for comments on a draft EA that described a further expansion of Arlington National Cemetery as part of the Millennium Project.[44][45] The 2012 draft EA was intended to implement conversion into burial space of the 17 acres (6.9 ha) of Ft. Myer grounds as well as 10 acres (4.0 ha) of Section 29 woodland. The draft EA described seven alternatives. The preferred alternative (Alternative E) called for the removal of about one-half of the 1,700 trees with a diameter of 6 inches (15 cm) or greater on the site. About 640 of the trees were within a 135-year-old portion of Arlington Woods.[46] The draft EA concluded: "Based on the evaluation of environmental impacts....., no significant impacts would be expected from the Proposed Action; therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement will not be prepared and a Finding of No Significant Impact will be prepared and signed."[46]

The 2001 legislation required the Secretary of the Army to use the Interment Zone for in-ground burial sites and columbarium.[28] In addition, the legislation required the Secretary of the Interior to manage the remainder of Section 29 "in perpetuity to provide a natural setting and visual buffer for Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee Memorial."[28]

On December 28, 2001, Public Law 107-107 repealed the "obsolete" part of Public Law 104-201 that had authorized the transfer of portions of Section 29 to the Secretary of the Army.[28] The new legislation required the Secretary of the Interior to transfer to the Secretary of the Army within 30 days the approximately 12 acres (4.9 ha) Interment Zone.[28] The transfer therefore involved the entire 12 acres (4.9 ha) of NPS land that the 1995 agreement and Alternative 3 in the 1999 EA had described.

Map showing the Millennium Project's expansion of Arlington National Cemetery.

In contrast to the NPS's March 1998 statement to the National Capital Planning Commission, the 1999 EA stated that the preferred alternative (Alternative 1) would transfer to the Cemetery approximately 9.6 acres (3.9 ha), comprising most of the Interment Zone and the northern tip of the Preservation Zone.[43] Another alternative (Alternative 3) would transfer to the Cemetery the 12 acres (4.9 ha) Interment Zone, while keeping the 12.5 acres (5.1 ha) Preservation Zone under NPS jurisdiction.[43] The EA concluded: "Public Law 104-201 directed the Secretary of the Interior to transfer to the Secretary of the Army jurisdiction over the Interment Zone, which is the plan in Alternative 3. Adoption of any of the other alternatives would require legislative action to amend the existing law."[43]

On July 12, 1999, the NPS issued a Federal Register notice that announced the availability of an environmental assessment (EA) for the transfer.[41][43] The EA stated that the Interment Zone contained the oldest and largest tract of climax eastern hardwood forest in Arlington County. This forest was the same type that once covered the Arlington estate, and had regenerated from trees that were present historically. A forestry study determined that a representative tree was 258 years old. The Interment Zone was also determined to contain significant archeological and cultural landscape resources, in addition to those in the Preservation Zone.[43] The EA described four alternative courses of action.[43]

On March 5, 1998, the NPS, which is a component of the Department of the Interior, informed the National Capital Planning Commission that it wanted to transfer only 4 acres (1.6 ha) to the Cemetery, rather than the 12 acres (4.9 ha) that the 1995 agreement had described. In response, Metzler stated: "I was surprised. But we will continue to work with the Department of Interior and see what happens."[27]

On September 23, 1996, Public Law 104-201 authorized the Secretary of the Interior to transfer to the Secretary of the Army all of the land in Section 29 that was within an "Arlington National Cemetery Interment Zone" and some of the land in the Section that was within a "Robert E. Lee Memorial Preservation Zone".[26][31][33]

Environmentalists expressed concerns that the agreement would result in the partial destruction of the 24 acres (9.7 ha) remnant of an historically important stand of native trees.[36] A historical marker near the woodland notes that, while visiting Arlington House in 1825, [42]

On February 22, 1995, officials of the United States Department of the Interior and the United States Department of the Army signed an agreement to transfer from Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial, to the Army a part of Arlington Woods, which was located in Section 29 of the NPS at Arlington National Cemetery between Arlington House and Fort Myer.[40] The property transfer, which involved 12 acres (4.9 ha) of NPS land, was intended to enable the Cemetery to increase its space for burials.[27][33][41]

A portion of Arlington Woods on Humphreys Drive

Arlington Woods expansion controversy

During these celebrations, cemetery officials formally re-designated the Old Amphitheater as the James Tanner Amphitheater. James R. Tanner was a Union Army officer who lost both legs during the war. He later became a War Department stenographer, and recorded much of the early evidence in the investigation into the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. He later was active in the Grand Army of the Republic, a Union Army veterans group. Tanner is buried a few yards from the amphitheater.[39]

In May 2014, Arlington National Cemetery celebrated the 150th anniversary of its founding with a series of events, tours, and lectures.

150th anniversary

On March 26, 2013, Public Law 113-6 appropriated to the DOD $84 million to plan, design and construct the Millennium Project.[38] The legislation additionally appropriated to the DOD $19 million to study, plan and design a future expansion of the Cemetery's burial space.[38]

In January 2013, Arlington County, Virginia, signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Arlington Cemetery officials to expand the cemetery even further. Under the tentative plan, Arlington County will give up the easement for Southgate Road (which lies between the Navy Annex property and the cemetery's 2012 boundary), and obtain a narrow easement along the southwest border of the Navy Annex site for a new Southgate Road. In exchange, the Department of Defense will give the Navy Annex parking lot to the county. Army land west of South Joyce Street to Columbia Pike would be transferred to the county as well. Additionally, roughly the northern half of the Virginia Department of Transportation land bounded by South Joyce Street, Columbia Pike, and South Washington Boulevard would be conveyed by the state to the cemetery. The cloverleaf interchange between Columbia Pike and S. Washington Blvd. would be eliminated, and the hairpin turn in Columbia Pike straightened, to provide a safer, more natural exit from S. Washington Blvd. onto Columbia Pike. Although exact acreages were not specified and the plan depends on state cooperation, the MOU if implemented would create a more contiguous plot of land for the cemetery.[37]

In 2007, Metzler implemented the Millennium Project, a $35 million expansion plan to begin utilizing the Arlington woodland, Ft. Myer, and Navy Annex land. The project also included converting 40 acres (16 ha) of unused space and 4 acres (16,000 m2) of maintenance property on the cemetery grounds into burial space in 2006 and 2007 to allow an additional 26,000 graves and 5,000 inurnments. The Millennium Project expanded Arlington's physical boundaries for the first time since the 1960s, and was the largest expansion of burial space at the site since the American Civil War.[34] Metzler's plans were criticized and opposed by several environmental and historical preservation groups, as well as by the NPS and the manager of Arlington House.[34][35][36]

Gravestones at Arlington National Cemetery are marked by U.S. flags each Memorial Day.

The cemetery received the authority to transfer 12 acres (4.9 ha) of woodland from the NPS-controlled Arlington House in 1996[26][27] and 2001,[28] 37 acres (15 ha) of land in 1999 from the Department of Defense (DOD) that was the site of the Navy Annex building,[29] 8 acres (3.2 ha) of land in 1999 from the Department of the Army that was part of Fort Myer,[30][31] 4 acres (1.6 ha) of land from Arlington County's Southgate Road right-of-way in 2004,[32] and just under 10 acres (4.0 ha) of land from Fort Myer in 2005.[33][34][35]

With limited space but large numbers of World War II, Korean War, Vietnam War, and other veterans dying and wanting to be buried at Arlington, the need for additional burial space at the cemetery became a pressing issue. In 1990, cemetery superintendent John C. Metzler, Jr., implemented a $1.4 million plan to clear a former 13 acres (5.3 ha) parking lot to create space for new graves.[25]

Recent expansion

Beginning in 1992, Morill Worcester donated thousands of wreaths around the end-of-year holiday season to be placed on graves at Arlington. He has since expanded his effort, now known as Wreaths Across America, and supplies wreaths to over 230 state and national cemeteries and veterans monuments across the country.[24]

President Herbert Hoover conducted the first national Memorial Day ceremony in Arlington National Cemetery, on May 30, 1929.[23]

The southern portion of the land now occupied by the cemetery was used during and after the Civil War as a settlement for freed slaves. More than 1,100 freed slaves were given land at Freedman's Village by the government, where they farmed and lived during and after the Civil War. They were evicted in 1888 when the estate was repurchased by the government and dedicated as a military installation.

The government acquired Arlington at a tax sale in 1864 for $26,800, equal to $400,000 today.[20] Mrs. Lee had not appeared in person but rather had sent an agent, attempting to pay the $92.07 in property taxes (equal to $1,400 today) assessed on the estate in a timely manner.[21] The government turned away her agent, refusing to accept the tendered payment. In 1874, [21] After that decision, Congress returned the estate to him, and on March 3, 1883,[22] Custis Lee sold it back to the government for $150,000 (equal to $3,221,364 in 2016) at a signing ceremony with Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln.[20]

George W. Dunaway who was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery.

At the outbreak of the Civil War, most military personnel who died in battle near Washington, D.C., were buried at the United States Soldiers' Cemetery in Washington, D.C., or Alexandria Cemetery in Alexandria, Virginia, but by late 1863 both were nearly full.[12] On July 16, 1862, Congress passed legislation authorizing the U.S. federal government to purchase land for national cemeteries for military dead, and put the U.S. Army Quartermaster General in charge of this program.[12] In May 1864, Union forces suffered large numbers of dead in the Battle of the Wilderness. Quartermaster General Montgomery C. Meigs ordered that an examination of eligible sites be made for the establishment for a large new national military cemetery. Within weeks, his staff reported that Arlington Estate was the most suitable property in the area.[12] The property was high and free from floods (which might unearth graves), it had a view of the District of Columbia, and it was aesthetically pleasing. It was also the home of the leader of the armed forces of the Confederate States of America, and denying Robert E. Lee use of his home after the war was a valuable political consideration.[13] The first military burial at Arlington William Henry Christman was made on May 13, 1864.[14] close to what is now the northeast gate in Section 27.[15] However, Meigs did not formally authorize establishment of burials until June 15, 1864.[16] The first African-American to be buried there was William H. Johnson, an employee of President Lincoln. Lincoln arranged for him to be buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Lincoln had Johnson's name engraved on the tombstone, alongside the word "Citizen."[17][18] Arlington did not desegregate its burial practices until President Harry S. Truman issued Executive Order 9981 on July 26, 1948.[19]

When Virginia seceded from the Union at the start of the American Civil War, Robert E. Lee resigned his commission on April 20, 1861, and took command of the armed forces of the Commonwealth of Virginia, later becoming commander of the Army of Northern Virginia.[5] On May 7, troops of the Virginia militia occupied Arlington and Arlington House.[6] With Confederate forces occupying Arlington's high ground, the capital of the Union was left in an untenable military position.[7] Although unwilling to leave Arlington House, Mary Lee believed her estate would soon be infested with federal soldiers. So she buried many of her family treasures on the grounds and left for her sister's estate at Ravensworth in Fairfax County, Virginia, on May 14.[8][9] On May 3, General Winfield Scott ordered Brigadier General Irvin McDowell to clear Arlington and the city of Alexandria, Virginia, of all troops not loyal to the United States.[10] McDowell occupied Arlington without opposition on May 24.[11]

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