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David Fanning (loyalist)

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David Fanning (loyalist)

David Fanning
MLA for Kings County, New Brunswick
In office
1791–1801
Personal details
Born c. 1755
Amelia County, Virginia
Died March 14, 1825
Digby, Nova Scotia
Spouse(s) Sarah Carr
Parents David Fanning
Occupation Farmer, Author, Colonel, Politician
Military service
Allegiance Kingdom of Great Britain
Service/branch British Army
Years of service 1775–1782
Rank Colonel
Battles/wars

David Fanning (c. 1755 – March 14, 1825) was a Loyalist leader in the American Revolutionary War in North and South Carolina. Fanning participated in approximately 36 minor engagements and skirmishes, and in 1781, captured the Governor of North Carolina, Thomas Burke, from the temporary capital at Hillsborough. Additionally, Fanning was captured by Patriot forces 14 times throughout the war, each time escaping or receiving a pardon. After the British defeat in the war, Fanning fled to Canada, where he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick from 1791 to 1801 representing Kings County. After being convicted of rape in 1801, Fanning was expelled from New Brunswick, and settled in Nova Scotia, where he lived the remainder of his life.

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • American War of Independence 2
  • Post-war political career and death 3
  • Controversy 4
  • References 5
    • Notes 5.1
    • Bibliography 5.2

Early life

Fanning was born October 25, 1755 in Amelia County, Virginia. His father was David Fanning, and he grew up in Johnston County, North Carolina.[1] He developed a childhood scalp condition which, according to oral traditions collected by early North Carolina historian Eli Caruthers, resulted in long-term baldness.[2] Fanning and his sister were orphaned in 1764 by the death of their father, and in 1773, David settled on a tributary of the Reedy River in South Carolina. At the onset of the Revolutionary War, Fanning was also an officer in a local militia unit in the South Carolina upcountry. In 1775, that region leaned in favor of the Loyalists, and Fanning lent himself to that cause.[3]

American War of Independence

Fanning initially participated in the Snow Campaign of 1775, which proved to be a setback for the Loyalists in South Carolina. After a particular disaster at the Battle of Great Cane Break on December 22, 1775, Fanning avoided capture by Patriot forces by taking refuge among the Cherokee nearby. Fanning was arrested by the Patriots one month later, which would prove to be the first of fourteen times he would be made a captive during the ensuing war. He managed to escape and flee again to the Cherokee, and was arrested three more times in North Carolina, each time being rescued by sympathetic forces. Fanning then returned home, and was subsequently arrested several more times before being acquitted at a treason trial in November of 1777.[3] At some point during this time, Fanning was harassed by Patriot sympathizers, and had trade goods stolen from him by them.[4]

In March 1778, Loyalist activity again swelled in South Carolina, and Fanning raised a company of Loyalist militia which raided Patriot sympathizers on the John Rutledge in August 1779. After accepting the pardon, Fanning agreed to serve in the Patriot militia, but after the British success in the Siege of Charleston, Fanning took up the Loyalist banner once again and began recruiting men to his cause. After the Battle of Kings Mountain in October 1780, Fanning traveled to Chatham County, North Carolina, where he intended to recruit loyalist soldiers in anticipation of the British entry into that state. In February of 1781, General Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis occupied Hillsborough, and Fanning was let loose against Patriot targets in the region, sparring with local Patriot militia, but not taking part in any substantial engagements.[3]

After suffering a Pyrrhic victory at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse in March 1781, Cornwallis and the British Army were forced to march to Wilmington, leaving Fanning to recruit more Loyalist militia and stir up trouble in the North Carolina backcountry. Fanning asked for, and received a commission as a colonel of the Loyalist Militia in Randolph and Chatham counties on July 5, 1781. Fanning would often conduct raids with fewer than 12 men, and would capture and ransom or parole leading Patriot sympathizers and political figures. It has been estimated that he fought approximately 36 skirmishes during that year. Among these included a raid on a session of court in Chatham County, during which engagement Fanning took 53 prisoners, among them court officials, militia officers, and several members of the North Carolina General Assembly. Fanning was also the principle commander of the Loyalist militia involved in the battle at the House in the Horseshoe in the late summer of 1781, in which engagement Fanning forced the surrender of a force of Patriot militia. By the end of the summer of 1781, Fanning's infamy had attracted a force of approximately 950 Loyalist men to his command.[3]

On September 12, 1781, Fanning commenced a daring morning raid on Hillsborough, North Carolina, where the Patriot government of that state was based at the time. Fanning was able to capture North Carolina Governor Thomas Burke, along with 200 other Patriot prisoners, and escaped on the way to Wilmington.[5] Brigadier General John Butler, the commanding officer of the Hillsborough District militia, was alerted of Burke's capture, and attempted to stop Fanning from continuing on to British-controlled Wilmington at the Battle of Lindley's Mill on September 13. In that engagement, Fanning's militia, along with a unit of Highlanders commanded by Hector McNeill and Archibald McDugald, attempted to cross the Cane Creek, a tributary of the Haw River, and were surprised by Butler's men. Although Fanning had superior numbers with him, the battle lasted nearly four hours before Butler was dislodged from his position. Fanning was able to continue on to Wilmington, although suffering a grievous wound at Lindley's Mill, and delivered Burke to the British Army.[6]

In January 1782, the larger course of the war had turned against the British, and Fanning found himself forced to request terms of surrender from his adversary, General Butler. In April 1782, he married Sarah Carr, and the two escaped to South Carolina. A legislative act in North Carolina in 1783 which granted pardons to former Loyalists specifically exempted Fanning from its terms, along with only two other men.[5]

Post-war political career and death

After the recognition of American independence, Fanning moved to Florida and then the Bahamas before settling in the newly created British colony of New Brunswick. Fanning was elected to the 2nd New Brunswick Legislative Assembly in 1791,[5] although he was disliked by many of the more privileged former Loyalists of New Brunswick.[4] Fanning represented Kings County, New Brunswick until 1801.[5] In 1800, he was accused of the rape of 15-year-old[4] Sarah London, and was found guilty and sentenced to death despite his protests that the evidence against him was flawed. Fanning was pardoned but exiled from New Brunswick, and expelled from the provincial assembly. Fanning settled in Digby, Nova Scotia where he owned several merchant ships, and later died in 1825. He left behind a daughter and two sons.[5]

Controversy

In 1790, Fanning wrote The Narrative of Colonel David Fanning, which would first see print in 1861 in Richmond, Virginia, then the capital of the Confederate States of America.[7] North Carolina historian Samuel A'Court Ashe wrote that Fanning was "one of the most extraordinary men evolved by the Revolutionary War",[5] but Fanning's calculated and sometimes brutal methods during that conflict have left him with a controversial legacy.[5]

References

Notes


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ Butler 1986, pp. 179–180.
  2. ^ Caruthers 2010, p. 78.
  3. ^ a b c d Butler 1986, p. 180.
  4. ^ a b c Allen 1987.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Butler 1986, p. 181.
  6. ^ Rankin 1971, p. 365.
  7. ^ Fanning 1861, pp. i, viii–ix.

Bibliography

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