World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Edward Pakenham

Article Id: WHEBN0000442198
Reproduction Date:

Title: Edward Pakenham  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Battle of New Orleans, Battle of Salamanca, Catherine Wellesley, Duchess of Wellington, Seth Kinman, Chalmette, Louisiana
Collection: 1778 Births, 1815 Deaths, British Army Commanders of the Napoleonic Wars, British Army Generals, British Army Personnel of the Napoleonic Wars, British Army Personnel of the War of 1812, British Military Personnel Killed in the War of 1812, Irish Mps 1798–1800, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, Members of the Parliament of Ireland (Pre-1801), Pakenham Family, People Educated at the Royal School, Armagh, People of the Irish Rebellion of 1798, Politicians from County Westmeath, Recipients of the Army Gold Cross, Younger Sons of Barons
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Edward Pakenham

The Honourable
Sir Edward Pakenham
GCB
Member of Parliament
for Longford Borough
In office
1799–1800
Preceded by Hon. Thomas Pakenham
Succeeded by Hon. Thomas Pakenham
Personal details
Born (1778-03-19)19 March 1778
County Westmeath, Ireland
Died 8 January 1815(1815-01-08) (aged 36)
New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
Awards Knight Companion of the Order of the Bath
Army Gold Cross
Military service
Allegiance  United Kingdom
Service/branch  British Army
Years of service 1794–1815
Rank Major-general
Battles/wars Irish Rebellion of 1798
Battle of Copenhagen
Peninsular War
War of 1812 

The Honourable Sir Edward Pakenham GCB (pro. pack-en'um) (19 March 1778 – 8 January 1815), was an Anglo-Irish Army Officer and Politician. He was the brother-in law of the Duke of Wellington, with whom he served in the Peninsular War. Appointed as commander of British forces in North America in 1814, he was killed in action at the Battle of New Orleans.

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • Early service 2
  • Peninsular War 3
  • War of 1812 4
  • Legacy 5
  • Footnotes 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Early life

Pakenham was born at Pakenham Hall (now known as Tullynally Castle), County Westmeath, Ireland to Edward Pakenham, 2nd Baron Longford and the former Catherine Rowley. He was educated at The Royal School, Armagh. His family purchased his commission as a lieutenant in the 92nd Regiment of Foot when he was only sixteen. Between 1799 and 1800, Pakenham also represented Longford Borough in the Irish House of Commons.

Early service

Known as 'Ned' to his friends, he served with the 23rd Light Dragoons against the French in Ireland during the 1798 Rebellion and later in Nova Scotia, Barbados, and Saint Croix. He led his men in an attack on Saint Lucia in 1803, where he was wounded. He also fought in the Danish campaign at the Battle of Copenhagen (1807) and in Martinique against the French Empire, where he received another wounding. In 1806, his sister Catherine married Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of Wellington.

Peninsular War

Pakenham, as adjutant-general, joined his well known in-law, the Duke of Wellington, in the Peninsular War. He commanded a regiment in the Battle of Bussaco in 1810 and in 1811 fought in the Battle of Fuentes de Onoro to defend the besieged fortress of Almeida, helping to secure a British victory. In 1812 he was praised for his performance at Salamanca in which he commanded the Third Division and hammered onto the flank of the extended French line. In the following years he was appointed a Knight Companion of the Order of the Bath in 1813, fought at the Battle of Toulouse in 1814 and received the Grand Cross to the Order of the Bath in 1815. He also received the Army Gold Cross and clasps for the battles of Martinique, Busaco, Fuentes d'Oñoro, Salamanca, Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, Orthez, and Toulouse.

War of 1812

Death of Pakenham at the Battle of New Orleans

In September 1814, Pakenham, having been promoted to the rank of major-general, accepted an offer to replace General Robert Ross as commander of the British North American army, after Ross was killed during the skirmishing prior to the Battle of North Point near Baltimore.

The next year during the Battle of New Orleans while rallying his troops near the enemy line, grapeshot from US artillery shattered his left knee and killed his horse. As he was helped to his feet by his senior ADC (aide-de-camp), Major Duncan MacDougall, Pakenham was wounded a second time in his right arm. After he mounted MacDougall's horse, more grapeshot ripped through his spine, fatally wounding him, and he died as he was being carried off the battlefield on a stretcher, at the age of 36. His last words were reputed to be telling MacDougall to find General Lambert to tell him to assume command as well as "Tell him... tell Lambert to send forward the reserves."[1] The battle ended in defeat for the British.

The American commander was Major General Andrew Jackson, who would go on to become the President of the United States. A general ceasefire had already been declared by the Treaty of Ghent, signed on 24 December 1814, but as peace was not yet ratified in Washington as required by the treaty, the nations were still formally at war. The news of the treaty did not reach the combatants until February, several weeks after the battle.[2]

Legacy

Wellington had held Pakenham in high regard and was deeply saddened by news of his death, commenting:

We have but one consolation, that he fell as he lived, in the honourable discharge of his duty and distinguished as a soldier and a man. I cannot but regret that he was ever employed on such a service or with such a colleague. The expedition to New Orleans originated with that colleague... The Americans were prepared with an army in a fortified position which still would have been carried, if the duties of others, that is of the Admiral (Sir Alexander Cochrane), had been as well performed as that of he whom we now lament.[3]

There is a statue in his memory at the South Transept of St Paul's Cathedral in London. His body was returned in a cask of rum and buried in the Pakenham family vault in Killucan in County Westmeath, Ireland.

There is a small village in Ontario, Canada, named in honour of the general's short visit there and his role in the War of 1812. The village is located on the Mississippi River which originates from Mississippi Lake and empties into the Ottawa River.

There is also a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, named after him.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Robin Reilly, "The British At The Gates", GP Putnam's Sons pub., 1974, page 291.
  2. ^ Remini, Robert V. (1999). The battle of New Orleans. New York: Penguin Books. p. 193-194: "Then in mid-February dispatches arrived from Europe announcing that the commissioners in Ghent had signed a treaty of peace with their British counterparts and that the War of 1812 had ended." "the Senate of the United States unanimously (35-0) ratified the Treaty of Ghent on 16 February 1815. Now the war was officially over."
  3. ^ Holmes, Richard (2003). Wellington: The Iron Duke Page 206, Harper and Collins

References

  • "Edward Michael Pakenham", A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography, Vol. 2 (1988), p. 627
  •  "Pakenham, Edward Michael".  
  • "The Dawn's Eary Light", Walter Lord, 1971
  • [2] BATTLE KISS by O'Neil De Noux, epic war novel set around The Battle of New Orleans.

External links

Parliament of Ireland
Preceded by
Hon. Thomas Pakenham
Henry Stewart
Member of Parliament for Longford Borough
with Hon. Thomas Pakenham

1799–1800
Succeeded by
Hon. Thomas Pakenham
Thomas Borrowes
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.