World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Eliot Spitzer

Article Id: WHEBN0021378255
Reproduction Date:

Title: Eliot Spitzer  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: David Paterson, Silda Wall Spitzer, Viewpoint (talk show), In the Arena, Eliot Spitzer
Collection: 1959 Births, American People of Austrian-Jewish Descent, American Television Talk Show Hosts, Antitrust Lawyers, Cnn People, David Paterson, Democratic Party State Governors of the United States, Eliot Spitzer, Governors of New York, Harvard Law School Alumni, Horace Mann School Alumni, Jewish American Attorneys, Jewish American State Governors of the United States, Living People, New York Democrats, New York State Attorneys General, People from the Bronx, Princeton University Alumni, Slate (Magazine) People, United States Presidential Electors, 2000, United States Presidential Electors, 2004
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Eliot Spitzer

Eliot Spitzer
54th Governor of New York
In office
January 1, 2007 – March 17, 2008
Lieutenant David Paterson
Preceded by George Pataki
Succeeded by David Paterson
63rd New York Attorney General
In office
January 1, 1999 – December 31, 2006
Governor George Pataki
Preceded by Dennis Vacco
Succeeded by Andrew Cuomo
Personal details
Born Eliot Laurence Spitzer
(1959-06-10) June 10, 1959
Bronx, New York
Nationality American
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Silda Wall Spitzer (1987-2013,div.)
Children 3
Residence Manhattan, New York
Alma mater Princeton University (A.B.)
Harvard Law School (J.D.)
Profession Lawyer
Politician
Signature

Eliot Laurence Spitzer (born June 10, 1959) is an American lawyer, political commentator, and Democratic Party politician who served as the 54th Governor of New York from January 2007 until his resignation on March 17, 2008. He most recently ran as a candidate for New York City Comptroller, losing the Democratic nomination to Scott Stringer. His resignation as governor resulted from the aftermath of a prostitution scandal. Prior to being elected governor, Spitzer served as New York State Attorney General. After serving as Governor, he became a political commentator, and was most recently the host of Viewpoint with Eliot Spitzer, a nightly news and commentary program on Current TV, which he later left. Prior to Viewpoint, he was the co-host of In the Arena—a talk-show and punditry forum broadcast on CNN—from October 2010 to July 2011.

He grew up in the Gambino crime family's control over Manhattan's garment and trucking industries. In 1994, Spitzer left to work at the law firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom and, later, Constantine and Partners.[4]

In the 1998 election, Spitzer defeated incumbent Republican Dennis Vacco by a slim margin to become New York State Attorney General. His campaign was financed by a controversial multi-million dollar loan from his father. As attorney general, Spitzer prosecuted cases relating to corporate white collar crime, securities fraud, internet fraud and environmental protection.[5] He pursued cases against computer chip price fixing, investment bank stock price inflation,[6] predatory lending practices by mortgage lenders, fraud at American International Group,[7] and the 2003 mutual fund scandal. He also sued Richard Grasso, the former chairman of the New York Stock Exchange, over a compensation package perceived to be excessive.[8]

In 2007, Spitzer was inaugurated Governor of New York after defeating Republican John Faso. During his time in office, he proposed a bill to legalize same-sex marriage in New York and issued an executive order allowing undocumented immigrants to be issued driver's licenses; both attracted controversy. In July 2007, he was admonished for his administration's involvement in ordering the New York State Police to record the whereabouts of State Senate majority leader Joseph L. Bruno. On March 10, 2008, it was reported that Spitzer was a client of Emperors Club VIP. The scandal prompted him to resign as Governor on March 17.[9][10]

On July 7, 2013, Spitzer announced he would be [11] On September 10, 2013, Spitzer lost the Democratic primary to Manhattan borough president Scott Stringer.[12]

Contents

  • Early life and education 1
  • Legal career 2
  • New York Attorney General 3
    • Elections 3.1
    • Tenure overview 3.2
    • Notable cases 3.3
    • Loan investigation controversy 3.4
  • 2006 election for Governor 4
  • Governorship 5
    • Legislative measures supported 5.1
    • Roadblocks to reform 5.2
    • Proposal to legalize same-sex marriage 5.3
    • Controversy over use of State Police for surveillance 5.4
    • Controversy over driver's licenses for undocumented immigrants 5.5
    • Approval as Governor 5.6
    • Prostitution scandal 5.7
    • Resignation 5.8
      • Post-resignation developments 5.8.1
  • Post-resignation media and public appearances 6
  • 2013 election for NYC Comptroller 7
  • Personal life 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

Early life and education

Spitzer was born on June 10, 1959, in the Bronx, the son of Anne (née Goldhaber), an English literature professor, and Bernard Spitzer, a real estate mogul.[13][14] His paternal grandparents were Galician Jews, born in Tluste, Poland (now Ukraine). His maternal grandparents, born in the 1890s, were Jewish immigrants from Palestine.[13][15][16] Spitzer is the youngest of three children. He was raised in the affluent Riverdale section of The Bronx in New York City. His family was not particularly religious, and Spitzer did not have a Bar Mitzvah.[17]

He is a 1977 graduate of Horace Mann School. After scoring 1590 out of 1600 on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT),[17] Spitzer attended Princeton University and majored in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. At Princeton, he was elected chairman of the undergraduate student government, and graduated in 1981. He claims he received a perfect score on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT),[18] and went on to attend Harvard Law School, where he met and married Silda Wall. Spitzer was an editor of the Harvard Law Review.

Legal career

Upon receiving his Juris Doctor, Spitzer clerked for Judge Robert W. Sweet in Manhattan, then joined the law firm of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison. He stayed there for less than two years before leaving to join the New York County District Attorney's office.

Spitzer joined the staff of Manhattan District Attorney antitrust violations. Joseph and Thomas Gambino, the latter being an extremely high-ranking member, and two other defendants took the deal and avoided jail by pleading guilty, paying $12 million in fines and agreeing to stay out of the business.[19]

Spitzer left the District Attorney's office in 1992 to work at the law firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom.[20] From 1994 to 1998 he worked at the law firm Constantine and Partners on a number of consumer rights and antitrust cases.

New York Attorney General

Elections

1994

Long-serving Democratic New York State Attorney General George Pataki.

1998

That election of a Republican in 1994 allowed Spitzer to run again in 1998. On May 6, 1998 he announced he would run for the office again.[25] On May 28, he emerged as the front-runner in the race, ranking first at the convention with 36% of the vote. He also had the most amount of money, with over $2 million.[26] In September, he won the Democratic primary election with 42% of the vote. He defeated State Senator Catherine Abate (27%), Koppell (22%), and former Governor's Counsel Evan Davis (9%).[27]

In late October, he conceded that his father lent him most of the money he raised. He financed both campaigns from two sets of loans: $4.3 million in 1994 and $4.8 million in 1998, both from

Legal offices
Preceded by
Dennis Vacco
New York State Attorney General
1999–2006
Succeeded by
Andrew Cuomo
Political offices
Preceded by
George Pataki
Governor of New York
2007–2008
Succeeded by
David Paterson
  • FBI affidavit regarding the Emperor's Club VIP scandal
  • "Predatory Lenders' Partner in Crime". Spitzer, Eliot, The Washington Post, February 14, 2008.

Reports:

  • Attorney General Watch – blog of the American Enterprise Institute, a conservative think tank, critical of Eliot Spitzer and other state attorneys general.
  • "Not Spitzer's Job" – article by Alan Reynolds, senior fellow of the Cato Institute, a libertarian think-tank. Reprinted from The Wall Street Journal
  • The Passion of Eliot Spitzer: Is he telling the truth as he tries to "take people out"? by Kimberley A. Strassel, The Wall Street Journal, May 2006
  • Eliot Spitzer's Real Agenda... is Eliot Spitzer By Kimberley A. Strassel, The Wall Street Journal, May 2006
  • "Power Corrupts: Elliot [sic] Spitzer's Record as N.Y. Attorney General" By Alan Reynolds, Cato-at-liberty, March 8, 2008.

Critics:

  • Eliot Spitzer in the Newseum archive of front page images from 2008-03-13.
  • Breaking Legal News – Eliot L. Spitzer Collection of News of Eliot Spitzer
  • "Corruption probe hits US insurers" – BBC coverage of Spitzer's probe of insurance industry practices, October 15, 2004.
  • "Spitzer targets music companies" – BBC coverage of Spitzer's prosecution of payola, October 22, 2004
  • Eliot's MessGreg Palast,
  • Greg Palast interview on Spitzer scandal timing

Media coverage:

  • Eliot Spitzer on "Politicking with Larry King"
  •  
  • Frontline: The Wall Street Fix – from the PBS-series Frontline, dated April 16, 2003.
  • : New York Attorney General Eliot SpitzerNOW with Bill Moyers – Streaming video and transcripts of Spitzer's multiple interviews on the PBS series NOW with Bill Moyers.
  • "The Pollution Buster" – Interview with Elizabeth Kolbert in Fall 2004 issue of OnEarth Magazine, publication of the Natural Resources Defense Council
  • Eliot Spitzer: Geithner, Bernanke "Complicit" in Financial Crisis and Should Go – video report by Democracy Now!
  • Big Think Interview With Eliot Spitzer – video interview with BigThink.com, dated January 28, 2010.

Interviews:

  • "TIME Crusader of the Year 2002: Eliot Spitzer", by Adi Ignatius, December 21, 2002 issue of Time
  • "Corruption probe hits US insurers" – BBC News Online, October 15, 2004.
  • "Spoiling for a Fight: The Rise of Eliot Spitzer" by Brooke A. Masters (Times Books, July 2006)
  • "The Small Laws: Eliot Spitzer and the Way to Insurance Market Reform," by Sean M. Fitzpatrick, 74 Fordham L. Rev. 3041 (2006)

Biographies and profiles:

External links

  1. ^ Hakim, Danny (October 12, 2006). "Gilded Path to Political Stardom, With Detours". The New York Times. 
  2. ^ Eliot Spitzer, Examined, Jewish Journal, Steve Weinberg, May 13, 2010
  3. ^ Lowenstein, Roger. "As Governor, What Would His Battles Be?", The New York Times, July 16, 2006. Retrieved April 13, 2008. "Eliot and his two siblings grew up in the prosperous Riverdale enclave of the Bronx, fed on progressive politics and duly enrolled in private schools."
  4. ^ Donway, Rodger (April–May 2005). "Eliot Spitzer: Ayatollah General". Retrieved February 5, 2013.
  5. ^ The Sheriff of Wall Street.  
  6. ^ Spitzer, Eliot (February 14, 2008). "Predatory Lenders' Partner in Crime". The Washington Post. 
  7. ^ "Spitzer: How to Ground The Street". The Washington Post. November 16, 2008. Retrieved December 4, 2010. 
  8. ^ Dolmetsch, Chris (March 13, 2008). "Cheers on NYSE Floor, Shock in Albany: Spitzer's Fall". Bloomberg. Retrieved March 13, 2008. 
  9. ^ a b "Spitzer to step down by Monday". CNN. March 12, 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2008. 
  10. ^ Sklar, Rachel (March 12, 2008). "Spitzer's Resignation Speech: Transcript". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 13, 2008. 
  11. ^ Barbora, Michael (July 7, 2013). "Spitzer Rejoins Politics, Asking for Forgiveness". New York Times. 
  12. ^ Taylor, Kate (September 10, 2013). "Stringer Defeats Spitzer in Comptroller Primary". New York Times. 
  13. ^ a b Hakim, Danny (October 12, 2006). "Gilded Path to Political Stardom, With Detours". The New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2010. 
  14. ^ "The Ancestors of Eliot Spitzer". 
  15. ^ Jaffee, Martin (April 4, 2008). "Small college awakened future senator to service". JTNews. Retrieved April 16, 2009. 
  16. ^ Masters, Brooke A. (2007), Spoiling for a Fight: The Rise of Eliot Spitzer, Macmillan, p. 21  "Eliot's maternal grandfather, Joseph Goldhaber...[a] teacher who had emigrated from Israel..."
  17. ^ a b Hakim, Danny (October 12, 2006). "Gilded Path to Political Stardom, With Detours". The New York Times. Retrieved March 24, 2011. 
  18. ^ Healy, Patrick."An Ill-Timed Candidate Believes His Time Is Now", The New York Times, October 18, 2006. Retrieved January 1, 2007.
  19. ^ Ignatius, Adi (December 30, 2002). "Wall Street's Top Cop".  
  20. ^ "Eliot Spitzer Biography".  
  21. ^ News Archives: The Buffalo News. Nl.newsbank.com (May 5, 1994).
  22. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=zxQxAAAAIBAJ&sjid=leAFAAAAIBAJ&pg=4158,3131582&dq=elliot+spitzer&hl=en
  23. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=0RQxAAAAIBAJ&sjid=leAFAAAAIBAJ&pg=3130,3514464&dq=elliot+spitzer&hl=en
  24. ^ NY Attorney General – D Primary Race – Sep 13, 1994. Our Campaigns.
  25. ^ News Archives: The Buffalo News. Nl.newsbank.com (May 6, 1998).
  26. ^ Primary Ahead in Attorney General Race – New York Times. The New York Times. (May 28, 1998).
  27. ^ NY Attorney General – D Primary Race – Sep 15, 1998. Our Campaigns.
  28. ^ THE 1998 CAMPAIGN: THE MONEY; Spitzer Concedes That His Father Has Helped to Pay for Campaigns – New York Times. The New York Times. (October 28, 1998).
  29. ^ Eliot Spitzer for Attorney General – New York Times. The New York Times. (October 29, 1998).
  30. ^ NY Attorney General Race – Nov 03, 1998. Our Campaigns.
  31. ^ NY Attorney General Race – Nov 05, 2002. Our Campaigns.
  32. ^  
  33. ^ Kroft, Steve (May 25, 2003). "The Sheriff of Wall Street".  
  34. ^ Keating, Raymond J. (August 21, 2006). "Spitzer's 'federalist papers' are onerous".  
  35. ^ "New York City Police Department's 'Stop & Frisk' Practices: A Report to the People of the State of New York from the Office of the Attorney General". Diane Publishing. 
  36. ^ Running for Running Mate. The Nation. Retrieved March 16, 2010.
  37. ^ "U.S. group is taking on Spitzer". International Herald Tribune. January 6, 2005. Retrieved November 4, 2006. 
  38. ^ a b c Hakim, Danny. "His Aura Faded Now, Spitzer Faces Bolder Enemies", The New York Times, July 23, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  39. ^ a b c Dicker, Fredric. "GOP PUTS HEAT ON ELIOT'S $5M LOAN", New York Post, July 23, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  40. ^ "State Senate GOP Seek Spitzer Loan Records". Associated Press. July 23, 2007. 
  41. ^ "Richardson praises Eliot Spitzer as "future" of Democratic Party". Associated Press. June 2, 2005. Archived from the original on August 13, 2006. Retrieved November 4, 2006. 
  42. ^ Hakim, Danny (May 30, 2006). "Convention Notebook; Controversy Over Ground Zero's Fate Is Front and Center in Buffalo". The New York Times. Retrieved November 4, 2006. 
  43. ^ "Faso Convention Bubble Goes Flat in Gov Race, Quinnipiac University New York State Poll Finds; Spitzer Still Has 40-Point Lead Over Faso, Suozzi". Associated Press. June 21, 2006. Retrieved November 4, 2006. 
  44. ^ Robin, Josh (July 25, 2006). "Spitzer, Suozzi Face-Off in Sole Gubernatorial Debate".  
  45. ^ Gray, Geoffrey (August 14, 2006). "Spitzer Chokes on Pot Deal".  
  46. ^ Hakim, Danny (October 7, 2006). "Spitzer Vows to Push for Gay Marriage". The New York Times. Retrieved November 4, 2006. 
  47. ^ Cooper, Michael (January 1, 2007). "Amid Champagne and Cheers, Spitzer Is Sworn in as Governor".  
  48. ^ "Spitzer, Sworn in as New York Governor, Vows Historic Reform", Bloomberg, January 1, 2007. Retrieved July 27, 2007.
  49. ^ Cooper, Michael (February 8, 2007). "Legislators Pick a Comptroller, Defying Spitzer.".  
  50. ^ Fenner, Austin and Mahoney, Joe. "Bulldog Spitzer rips pol", Daily News, February 12, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  51. ^ Hakim, Danny. "On Tour to Talk Up Budget Plan, Spitzer Stays on Attack", The New York Times, February 13, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  52. ^ "ELIOT'S EDUCATION", New York Post, April 3, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  53. ^ "State payroll jumps with Spitzer". December 13, 2007. 
  54. ^ "2008–09 Executive Budget, Eliot Spitzer" (PDF). . Retrieved March 14, 2008.
  55. ^ Dicker, Fredric. Full Steam Ahead for Spunky Spitz, New York Post, February 1, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  56. ^ "Spitzer Knew About Troopergate And Should Testify, New York State Voters Tell Quinnipiac University Poll; Comptroller Should Share Pension Decisions, Voters Say". 
  57. ^ Dicker, Fredric U., Young & Poor Hit Hardest, New York Post.
  58. ^ Tedisco Accuses Spitzer of 'Dirty Tricks,' 'Bullying' October 17, 2007
  59. ^ Goodwin, Michael, Cornered by Troopergate, Spitzer is showing his desperation, Daily News.
  60. ^ Spitzer, Elliot (February 14, 2008). "Predatory Lenders' Partner in Crime; How the Bush Administration Stopped the States From Stepping in to Help Consumers". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 30, 2008. 
  61. ^ "Spitzer unveils gay marriage bill; Senate leader balks". Associated Press. April 27, 2007. 
  62. ^ "Bill Summary – A08590". 
  63. ^ a b c d e Hakim, Danny. "Spitzer's Staff Misused Police, Report Finds", The New York Times, July 23, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  64. ^ Precious, Tom (July 23, 2007). "Cuomo criticizes Spitzer for using State Police to monitor Bruno". The Buffalo News. 
  65. ^ a b Gormley, Michael. "Report: NY Governor's Office Leaked Data", The Guardian, July 23, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  66. ^ Gormley, Michael. "Spitzer aides linked to Bruno leaks", Utica Observer-Dispatch, July 24, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  67. ^ Faiola, Anthony. "N.Y. Governor Moves to Limit Ethics Scandal", The Washington Post, Page A06, July 25, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  68. ^ a b Matthews, Cara. "Cuomo: Spitzer aides used state police to try to damage Bruno", The Ithaca Journal, July 23, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  69. ^ a b Mansfield, Melissa (July 23, 2007). "Spitzer punishes aides after AG report". Newsday. 
  70. ^ a b c Gershman, Jacob. "Spitzer Faces Probe in Senate", New York Sun, July 24, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  71. ^ a b c Goldenberg, Sally. "Report: Governor's office compiled, leaked data on Bruno", Staten Island Advance, July 23, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  72. ^ Jochnowitz, Jay. "AG report faults Spitzer aides in Bruno scheme", Albany Times-Union, July 23, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  73. ^ Freifeld, Karen. "Spitzer Troopergate Subpoenas Still Stand, Judge Told". Bloomberg. March 13, 2008.
  74. ^ "Eliot Spitzer's tumultuous reign". Daily News. March 13, 2008.
  75. ^ Spector, Joseph. "Troopergate In Court". Journal News. March 13, 2008.
  76. ^ "Department of Motor Vehicles Changes License Policy to Include More New Yorkers and Implements New Regime of Anti-Fraud Measures to Strengthen the Security of the System". press release (Office of the Governor of New York). September 21, 2007. Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. Retrieved November 10, 2007. 
  77. ^ a b Bernstein, Nina (September 22, 2007). "Spitzer grants undocumented immigrants easier access to driver's licenses". The New York Times. Retrieved November 14, 2007. 
  78. ^ Madore, James T. (November 9, 2007). "Spitzer defends license plan over Democrat fears". Newsday. 
  79. ^ a b Confessore, Nicholas (October 23, 2007). "Senate Votes to Stop Spitzer Plan to Give undocumented Immigrants Driver's Licenses". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2007. 
  80. ^ a b Confessore, Nicholas (October 23, 2007). "Why Some Democrats Defected on Spitzer Driver's License Plan". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2007. 
  81. ^ a b c Confessore, Nicholas (October 31, 2007). "Visa data to be included on driver's licenses again". The New York Times. Retrieved November 14, 2007. 
  82. ^ Barrett, Devlin (November 14, 2007). "Spitzer Dropping His Driver's License Plan". The New York Times. Retrieved November 14, 2007. 
  83. ^ Issenberg, Sasha (November 1, 2007). "Clinton backs N.Y. driver's license plan for undocumented immigrants".  
  84. ^ a b Kramer, Marcia (November 15, 2007). "Just Call Him...Gov. Flip-Flop". Local News.  
  85. ^ Barrett, Devlin (November 15, 2007). "Gov. Spitzer Surrenders on License Fight". Associated Press. 
  86. ^ Lovett, Kennth; Geoff Earle (November 15, 2007). "Hill's 'Stand?' Well, today is Thursday". New York Post. Retrieved November 26, 2007. 
  87. ^ Mahoney, Joe (November 13, 2007). "Governor Eliot Spitzer's approval rating plummets over license plan".  
  88. ^ "Results of SurveyUSA News Poll #12789". SurveyUSA. October 24, 2007. 
  89. ^ Dicker, Fredric U.; Seifman, David (November 6, 2007). "Mike's secret bid to run vs. Spitzer".  
  90. ^ Miller, Kyle (December 17, 2007). "Two polls show Spitzer's public image still suffering". Legislative Gazette. 
  91. ^ Feuer, Alan (March 7, 2008). "Four Charged With Running Online Prostitution Ring". The New York Times. 
  92. ^ Pitney, Nico (March 10, 2008). "Spitzer As Client 9: Read Text Messages From Spitzer To Prostitute". Huffington Post. 
  93. ^ Wemple, Erik (March 5, 2008). """Spitzer Missed Lesson of D.C. "Madam. Washington City Paper. 
  94. ^ "Spitzer apologizes to family, public".  
  95. ^ "Online Hooker Ring Busted". The Smoking Gun. March 6, 2008. 
  96. ^ Kessler, Robert. "Eliot Spitzer met with call girls 7 or 8 times". Newsday. March 11, 2008.
  97. ^ "GOP Pol: Resign Or Else". WNBC. March 11, 2008.
  98. ^ a b Alberts, Sheldon (March 12, 2008). "Spitzer resigns amid sex scandal". Canwest News Service (The Gazzette). 
  99. ^ "Disgraced NY Governor won't Need New Job". Associated Press, March 12, 2008
  100. ^ 80G 'Addicted to Love' Gov", New York Post, March 12, 2008.
  101. ^ Hosenball, Mark (March 15, 2008). "Unintended consequences: Spitzer got snagged by the fine print of the Patriot Act". Newsweek.
  102. ^ Brian Ross (March 10, 2008). "It Wasn't the Sex; Suspicious $$ Transfers Led to Spitzer". 
  103. ^ "Text of Governor Spitzer's resignation letter". 
  104. ^ Hakim, Danny (June 16, 2008). "Spitzer Charged Campaign for Hotel Bills, Raising Question About His Funds". The New York Times. 
  105. ^ Hakim, Danny; William K. Rashbaum (November 6, 2008). "No Federal Prostitution Charges for Spitzer". The New York Times. Retrieved November 15, 2008. 
  106. ^ Rogers, Christopher (May 31, 2013). "Eliot Spitzer & Wife Silda Living Apart Five Years After Cheating – Report". Hollywood Life. 
  107. ^ Hakim, Danny (April 14, 2008). "Spitzer Spends His Time With Lawyers and Family". The New York Times. 
  108. ^ Hakim, Danny (June 28, 2008). "6 Months Later, Spitzer Is Contrite, Yes, but Sometimes Still Angry". The New York Times. 
  109. ^ Maggie Haberman (September 1, 2009). "YOU CAN'T KEEP A BAD MAN DOWN: SPITZER IS EYEING A COMEBACK". New York Post. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  110. ^ Reports: Spitzer won't run for Senate seat. Newsday (September 1, 2009). Retrieved March 16, 2010.
  111. ^ Eliot, Spitzer (November 16, 2008). "How to Ground the Street". The Washington Post. 
  112. ^ Spitzer, Eliot (December 3, 2008). "Too Big Not To Fail". Slate.com. 
  113. ^ "A Special Private Conversation with Gov. Eliot Spitzer". City College of New York. April 28, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2011. 
  114. ^ Steinberg, Joseph (April 7, 2009). "An Intimate Evening With Eliot Spitzer". EO-NY. 
  115. ^ "US: Former governor Eliot Spitzer joins CNN". The Spy Report (Media Spy). June 25, 2010. Retrieved June 25, 2010. 
  116. ^ Stelter, Brian (July 6, 2011). "CNN Cancels 'In the Arena' With Eliot Spitzer". The New York Times. Retrieved August 23, 2011. 
  117. ^ Gore, Al, and Joel Hyatt, "Open letter to the viewers of Current", Current TV, March 30, 2012.
  118. ^ Peters, Jeremy W. (August 22, 2011). "Spitzer and Slate Face Defamation Lawsuit". The New York Times. Retrieved August 23, 2011. 
  119. ^ Kaplan, Thomas (September 28, 2012). "Federal Judge Dismisses Lawsuit Against Ex-Gov. Spitzer". The New York Times. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  120. ^ Stelter, Brian (January 6, 2013). "Eliot Spitzer Ends His Show on Current TV". The New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2013. 
  121. ^ "Spitzer Submits Signatures to Get on NYC Ballot". Associated Press. Retrieved July 12, 2013. 
  122. ^ Barbaro, Michael; Chen, David W. (July 7, 2013). "Asking Forgiveness, Spitzer Will Run for City Comptroller". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2013. 
  123. ^ Bycoffe, Aaron (September 10, 2013). "Live Results: New York City Primary Elections". The Huffington Post. 
  124. ^ Callahan, Maureen (March 10, 2013). "Silda Spitzer still with husband Eliot five years after 'Luv Guv' scandal".  
  125. ^ Draznin, Haley; Catherine E. Shoichet (December 24, 2013). "Eliot Spitzer and his wife announce the end of their marriage".  
  126. ^ "Former NY gov Eliot Spitzer announces end of his marriage".  
  127. ^ Grynbaum, Michael M. (December 24, 2013). "Spitzer and His Wife Say Their Marriage is over".  

References

See also

Silda and Eliot married on October 17, 1987, and together they have three daughters: Elyssa (born 1990), Sarabeth (born 1993), and Jenna (born 1995).[124] At the close of 2013 Spitzer and his wife announced the end of their marriage.[125][126] Spitzer is reported to have had a romantic affair with Lis Smith, a 31-year-old spokesperson for then New York City Mayor-elect Bill de Blasio. She had been Spitzer's spokesperson during his 2013 run for comptroller.[127]

Personal life

Eliot Spitzer lost the primary on September 10, 2013 to Scott Stringer.[123]

[122] On July 7, 2013, Spitzer announced he was running for

2013 election for NYC Comptroller

On January 6, 2013, Spitzer announced that he had left both Viewpoint and Current TV, and that he would not be joining Current TV in its latest venture with Al Jazeera. "Moving forward, their mission will be different," he said. He also stated: "For me, journalism has been more a matter of projecting a particular approach to covering policies, to covering issues. It was a continuation of what I tried to do in government. And that doesn't fit with their vision of what they are going to do."[120]

On August 22, 2011, The New York Times reported that Spitzer has been sued for a combined $90 million over an August 22, 2010 Slate column about Wall Street firm Marsh & McLennan by two former executives of the company, claiming that they were libeled by the column.[118] The lawsuit by one of the executives was dismissed the following year.[119]

On March 30, 2012, Spitzer joined Current TV in the wake of Keith Olbermann's sudden firing from the network, and immediately began hosting his own program Viewpoint with Eliot Spitzer.[117]

[116] to the 8 p.m. time slot.Anderson Cooper 360° and shifting In the Arena on February 28, 2011. On July 6, 2011, CNN announced it was canceling In the Arena In February 2011, CNN announced that Parker was leaving the show, which was renamed [115] timeslot on weeknights starting in October.ET in the 8:00 p.m. Campbell Brown, replaced Crossfire, compared by some media outlets to the defunct Parker Spitzer. Kathleen Parker announced that Spitzer would be joining the network to host a "round-table" discussion program alongside center-right CNN. On June 24, 2010, MSNBC, as well as appearing as a substitute anchor on Campbell Brown and Real Time with Bill Maher He also made a number of television appearances in 2009 and 2010, including [114] Spitzer took on various public speaking arrangements, beginning with a discussion with the New York chapter of the

In September 2009, Spitzer joined the City College of New York as an adjunct instructor of political science and is currently teaching an undergraduate course called "Law and Public Policy."[113]

Spitzer continued to make public appearances and engage in media commitments following his resignation. The Washington Post published a Spitzer opinion piece in November 2008 conveying his analysis of the financial crisis of 2008 and suggested remedies. Spitzer concluded the piece by saying that he hoped the Obama Administration would make the right policy choices, "although mistakes I made in my private life now prevent me from participating in these issues as I have in the past."[111] The following month, Slate magazine published the first of a new series of columns by Spitzer dedicated to the economy.[112]

In September 2008, The New York Times reported that Spitzer was considering entering philanthropic, environmental, or pro bono legal work in an effort to improve his reputation.[108] According to some sources, Spitzer was considering a run for Senate or Comptroller in 2010,[109] speculation which Spitzer immediately dismissed.[110]

Since resigning, Spitzer has become a regular columnist for Slate and slowly begun a return to the limelight. Close friends have stated that Spitzer spends most of his time with his family, and regularly meets with lawyers in his father Bernard's real estate office in Manhattan. Spitzer and his wife have entered couples therapy because of Spitzer's adultery.[107]

Post-resignation media and public appearances

On May 31, 2013 Spitzer and his wife were reported to be living apart.[106]

In November 2008, prosecutors in charge of the case announced that Spitzer would not face criminal charges for his involvement in the sex ring citing they found no evidence of misuse of public funds and therefore pressing charges would not serve the public interest. Spitzer offered an apology for his conduct saying "I appreciate the impartiality and thoroughness of the investigation by the U.S. Attorney's Office, and I acknowledge and accept responsibility for the conduct it disclosed."[105]

On July 16, 2008, The New York Times made public that Spitzer used campaign funds to pay for two Mayflower Hotel bookings, $411.06 apiece, where he was suspected to have met with prostitutes. While it remains unclear if Spitzer stayed in the hotel on the nights he booked, The Times has stated that Spitzer met with prostitutes in early 2008. Spitzer declined to comment on the issue.[104]

Post-resignation developments

"I cannot allow for my private failings to disrupt the people's work," Spitzer said at a news conference in New York City. "Over the course of my public life, I have insisted – I believe correctly – that people take responsibility for their conduct. I can and will ask no less of myself. For this reason, I am resigning from the office of governor."[98][103] Spitzer's Lieutenant Governor, David Paterson, succeeded him as governor of New York State.

In the wake of the revelations, Spitzer announced on March 12, 2008, that he would resign his post as governor at noon on March 17, 2008, amid threats of his impeachment by state lawmakers.[9]

Resignation

On March 10, 2008, The New York Times reported that Spitzer had previously patronized a high-priced prostitution service called Emperors Club VIP[91] and met for over two hours with a $1,000-an-hour call girl. This information originally came to the attention of authorities from a federal wiretap.[92][93][94][95] Spitzer had at least seven or eight liaisons with women from the agency over six months, and paid more than $15,000.[96][97] According to published reports, investigators believe Spitzer paid up to $80,000 for prostitutes over a period of several years while he was Attorney General, and later as Governor.[98][99][100] Spitzer first drew the attention of federal investigators when his bank reported suspicious money transfers under the anti-money laundering provisions of the Bank Secrecy Act and the Patriot Act.[101] The resulting investigation, triggered by the belief that Spitzer may have been hiding bribe proceeds, led to the discovery of the prostitution ring.[102]

Prostitution scandal

As of November 13, 2007, Spitzer's approval rating as governor was 33 percent,[87] a further decline from his 44% approval rating of October 24, 2007.[88] A later poll showed that New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg would defeat Spitzer were he to seek reelection.[89] Two polls in December 2007 showed further erosion in Spitzer's public standing.[90]

Approval as Governor

On November 14, the day following the release of a poll showing the proposal as extremely unpopular with voters, Spitzer announced he would withdraw the plan, acknowledging that it would never be implemented.[82][83][84] The decision drew derision from the press, as the Associated Press termed this reversal a "surrender."[85] WCBS-TV labeled him "Governor Flip-Flop."[84] State Senator Rubén Díaz of the Bronx said he was "betrayed" by Spitzer's abandonment of the plan.[86]

Following the State Senate's vote, Spitzer revised his plan again, proposing the issuance of a third type of driver's license.[81] This driver's license would be available only to United States citizens who are New York State residents, and would be valid for crossing the Canadian border.[81] Spitzer also announced that the expiration dates of temporary visas would be printed on the driver's licenses of individuals living in the country with them.[81]

On October 21, 2007, the State Senate voted to oppose the Spitzer plan by a 39–19 vote.[79][80] Eight Democrats from moderate districts broke with Spitzer on the vote.[79][80] After the vote, The New York Times called this issue "Mr. Spitzer's single most unpopular decision since he took office."

On September 21, 2007, Spitzer issued an executive order directing that state offices allow undocumented immigrants to be issued driver's licenses effective December 2007.[76][77] Applicants for driver's licenses would not be required to prove legal immigration status and would be allowed to present a foreign passport as identification.[77] After meeting with the Department of Homeland Security in October 2007, Spitzer altered the plan so that licenses issued to migrant workers would look different from other licenses and that the new licenses would not allow access to airplanes and federal buildings.[78]

Controversy over driver's licenses for undocumented immigrants

The investigations of the event, dubbed "Troopergate" by media outlets, have not been affected by Spitzer's resignation.[73] As of March 2008, four probes by the state Attorney General's office, the State Senate Investigations Committee, the Albany County District Attorney's Office, and the New York Commission on Public Integrity are ongoing.[74][75]

Spitzer responded at a July 23 press conference that "As governor, I am accountable for what goes on in the executive branch and I accept responsibility for the actions of my office"[63] and that his administration had "grossly mishandled"[63] the situation.[71] Spitzer subsequently announced that he would indefinitely suspend his communications director, Darren Dopp, and reassign another top official.[72] When questioned about his promise to bring ethical responsibility to state politics, Spitzer responded by saying "I will not tolerate this behavior",[63] "ethics and accountability must and will remain rigorous in my administration,"[68] and that "I have always stated that I want ethics and integrity to be the hallmarks of my administration. That is why I requested that the State Inspector General review the allegations with respect to my office, and that is why we have fully cooperated with both inquiries."[69]

The report cleared Bruno of any misuse of the state's air fleet, which had been alleged.[68][69][70][71] The report criticized Spitzer's office for using State Police resources to gather information about Bruno's travel and releasing the information to the media.[70] The findings of the report were endorsed by Spitzer's own Inspector General, Kristine Hamann.[63][65][70][71]

A 57-page report issued by the Attorney General's office concluded that Spitzer engaged in creating media coverage concerning Senator Bruno's travel.[64] The investigation looked into both Bruno's travel and the Senate leader's allegation that Spitzer used State Police to spy on him.[65] Cuomo concluded that "These e-mails show that persons in the governor's office did not merely produce records under a Freedom of Information Law request, but were instead engaged in planning and producing media coverage concerning Senator Bruno's travel on state aircraft before any FOIL request was made."[66][67] It also suggests that the governor's staff lied when they tried to explain what they had done and forced the State Police to go far beyond their normal procedures in documenting Bruno's whereabouts.[38]

On July 23, 2007, New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo's office admonished the Spitzer administration for ordering the State Police to keep special records of Senate majority leader Joseph Bruno's whereabouts when he traveled with police escorts in New York City.[63]

Controversy over use of State Police for surveillance

In April 2007, Spitzer proposed a bill that would legalize same-sex marriage in New York. State Senate Majority Leader Joe Bruno announced his opposition to the proposal.[61] This legislation passed in the State Assembly on June 19, 2007, but was denied in the State Senate and was returned to the Assembly.[62]

Proposal to legalize same-sex marriage

In February 2008, The Washington Post published an Bush Administration for inhibiting States from pursuing predatory lenders.[60]

In the wake of the controversy involving the political surveillance controversy involving Bruno, Spitzer was accused of pandering to special interest groups to solidify his base of support. "The governor who took office vowing to clean up Albany has lost so much public support that he is reduced to feathering the nest of the unions and other liberals", wrote Michael Goodwin of the Daily News.[59]

Tedisco later accused Spitzer of cutting $300,000 of state funding for health care and education grants in the Schenectady area as retaliation for Tedisco's opposition to the Spitzer plan to allow illegal immigrants New York State driver's licenses.[57] Tedisco accused the Governor of "dirty tricks" and "bullying".[58]

Spitzer was criticized by members of the New York State Legislature for failing to compromise on issues during his first few months as governor. In one exchange, according to the New York Post, Spitzer told New York State Assembly Minority Leader James Tedisco: "Listen, I'm a f - - -king [hyphens sic on Post website] steamroller and I'll roll over you and anybody else", although they reported that neither party had provided the confirmation the Post sought.[55] Spitzer's reputation as a "steamroller" was shared by a plurality of New Yorkers in a Quinnipiac University poll, but by a 3 to 1 margin they believed the tactic had been unsuccessful and had only added to political gridlock.[56]

Spitzer's budget quickly turned into a deficit, as by the end of October it was projected the state would run a deficit exceeding $4 billion for the year. During Spitzer's first year the state payroll increased, aggravating budget problem.[53] Despite increasing the public sector payroll, in late 2007 New York State started leading the nation in lost jobs. The 2008–09 budget includes measures to counter financial effects of the crisis in the financial sector starting in the second half of 2007.[54]

One of Spitzer's key campaign pledges was to reform the state budget process. While the state did pass a budget on schedule in 2007, the ultimate results fell short of what many reformers hoped Spitzer would achieve. The New York Post opined, "Spitzer promised reform, and delivered something completely different" and termed the budget itself "bitterly disappointing."[52]

Spitzer traveled to the home districts of Democratic assemblymen William B. Magnarelli and George S. Latimer (in Syracuse and Westchester County respectively), and publicly criticized them for their votes on DiNapoli; he had plans to exert similar pressure on other of his party's legislators.[50][51]

Spitzer's choice was New York City Finance Commissioner Martha Stark, who was selected by a panel that consisted of former State Comptroller Edward Regan, former State Comptroller Carl McCall and former New York City Comptroller Harrison J. Goldin. On February 7, 2007, when the Legislature voted, Stark was one of two names put into nomination, along with Assemblyman Thomas DiNapoli of Long Island, Assembly Leader Sheldon Silver's choice. The final vote was 150 for DiNapoli and 56 for Stark. Stark's main support came from Democrats in the Senate, along with Republicans in both chambers.

Spitzer's reform-based platform, and his pledge "to change the ethics of Albany", hit an early roadblock when his ideas on how to fill vacancies in the executive department were defeated by the state legislature. According to the New York State Constitution, it is the duty of the state legislature to fill executive vacancies. The governor was criticized as unreasonable for admonishing the legislature when it took constitutional actions. The appointment of state assemblyman Thomas DiNapoli to succeed the disgraced Alan Hevesi as New York State Comptroller was a serious blow to the new governor. Spitzer had backed an outside panel to draft a list of qualified candidates; the legislature resisted Spitzer's desires when these included no legislators.[49] Some Assembly Democrats were alienated over the incident, and questioned Spitzer's refusal of extending patronage to party members seeking local political appointments.

Roadblocks to reform

Legislative measures supported

At the traditional midnight ceremony, Spitzer was sworn in as governor of New York on January 1, 2007. A public ceremony was held at 1 p.m. on the same day which featured brass and percussion players from the Empire State Youth Orchestra[47] Bucking tradition, the ceremony was held outdoors – the first outdoor inauguration ceremony in New York for over a century.[48] After taking the oath of office, he attended a concert at the Times Union Center in his honor, headlined by James Taylor and Natalie Merchant.

The Spitzer Executive Chamber
Office Name Term
Governor Eliot Spitzer 2007–2008
Lieutenant Governor David Paterson 2007–2008
Secretary to the Governor Rich Baum 2007–2008
General Counsel David Nocenti 2007–2008
Communications Director Darren Dopp 2007–2007
Christine Anderson 2007–2008
Director of State Operations Olivia Golden 2007–2008
Paul Francis 2008–2008
Chief of Staff Marlene Turner 2007–2008
Office of the Attorney General Andrew Cuomo 2007–2008
Office of the Inspector General Kristine Hamann 2007–2008
Office of the Comptroller Thomas Sanzillo (Acting) 2007–2007
Thomas DiNapoli 2007–2008
Department of Agriculture and Markets Patrick Hooker 2007–2008
Department of Banking Richard H. Neiman 2007–2008
Department of Civil Service Nancy G. Groenwegen 2007–2008
Department of Corrections and Community Supervision Brian Fischer 2007–2008
Department of Environmental Conservation Alexander Pete Grannis 2007–2008
Education Department Richard P. Mills 2007–2008
Department of Health Richard F. Daines 2007–2008
Insurance Department Eric R. Dinallo 2007–2008
Department of Labor M. Patricia Smith 2007–2008
Department of Motor Vehicles David Swarts 2007–2008
Department of Military & Naval Affairs Maj. Gen. Joseph J. Taluto 2007–2008
Department of Public Service Patricia Acampora 2007–2008
Garry A. Brown 2008–2008
Secretary of State Lorraine Cortés-Vázquez 2007–2008
Department of Taxation and Finance Robert L. Megna 2007–2008
Department of Transportation Astrid C. Glynn 2007–2008

Governorship

Spitzer was elected Governor on November 7, 2006, with 69 percent of the vote, defeating Republican John Faso and Libertarian John Clifton, among others.

On October 5, Spitzer, addressing the Empire State Pride Agenda, declared that as governor he would work to legalize gay marriage in New York.[46]

In January 2006, Spitzer selected New York State Senate minority leader David Paterson as his choice for Lieutenant Governor and running mate. After announcing his candidacy, Spitzer was endorsed by numerous New Yorkers, including state Comptroller Alan Hevesi and two former New York City mayors, David Dinkins and Ed Koch. On May 30, 2006, Spitzer and Paterson won the endorsement of the New York State Democratic party.[42] A June 2006 Quinnipiac University Polling Institute poll showed him leading Nassau county executive Thomas Suozzi 76–13 percent.[43] On July 25, 2006, he faced Suozzi in a gubernatorial debate held at Pace University in Manhattan, discussing issues such as public authorities and Medicaid.[44] When asked about marijuana, Spitzer stated that he disagrees with medicinal use of the drug, claiming that other medicines were more effective.[45] In the Democratic primary held on September 12, 2006, Spitzer handily defeated Suozzi, securing his party's nomination with 81 percent of the vote.

On December 8, 2004, Spitzer announced his intention to seek the Democratic nomination for governor of New York. While long rumored, Spitzer's announcement was unusually early—nearly two years before the election. As a result of Spitzer's relative speed in bringing state Democrats to his side, he gained the respect of Democratic leaders nationwide. New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson dubbed Spitzer the "future of the Democratic Party" at a fund raiser held in June 2005 for Spitzer's gubernatorial campaign.[41]

2006 election for Governor

[39][38] apartments his father had given him, but later revealed that his father was paying off the loans and, therefore, financing his campaign.mortgaging In 1998, Spitzer claimed that he secured the $5 million loan by [39] magazine "outlined what may have been a willful effort by Eliot Spitzer and his father to circumvent campaign-contribution limits in New York state law and then conceal their actions."New York that an article profiling Spitzer in Joseph Griffo Winner wrote to Senate Elections Committee chairman Senator [40] The New York State Senate Investigations committee is considering investigating a controversial multi-million dollar loan the governor's father

Loan investigation controversy

In addition to prosecutions and civil actions in the financial sector, Spitzer has pursued cases in both state and federal courts involving pollution, entertainment, technology, prostitution, corruption, occupational safety and health and other fields in which New York plays a part in setting and maintaining national standards of conduct.

Notable cases

In January 2005, the president of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce described Spitzer's approach as "the most egregious and unacceptable form of intimidation we've seen in this country in modern times".[37]

In 2004, The Nation endorsed Spitzer as a possible Democratic candidate for vice president, stating that he was "the single most effective battler against corporate abuses in either political party".[36] He was, however, not chosen.

Under his watch, Spitzer also commissioned a 1999 study of the NYPD's stop-and-frisk practices.[35]

As Attorney General, Spitzer stepped up the profile of the office. Traditionally, state attorneys general have pursued consumer rights cases, concentrating on local fraud while deferring national issues to the federal government. Breaking with this traditional deference, Spitzer took up civil actions and criminal prosecutions relating to corporate white-collar crime, securities fraud, Internet fraud, and environmental protection.[32] The New York Attorney General's office has Wall Street (and thus many leading corporate and financial institutions) within its jurisdiction. Also, the New York Attorney General wields greater than usual powers of investigation and prosecution of corporations under New York State's General Business Law. In particular, under the Martin Act of 1921, the New York Attorney General has the power to subpoena witnesses and company documents pertaining to investigations of fraud or illegal activity by a corporation. Spitzer used this statute to allow his office to prosecute cases which have been described as within federal jurisdiction.[33][34] Spitzer used this authority in his civil actions against corporations and criminal prosecutions against their officers. It proved useful in the wake of several U.S. corporate scandals that began with the collapse of Enron in 2001. Several of these corporations, as well as the brokerage houses that sold their stock, were accused of having inflated stock values by unethical means throughout the 1990s. When inquiries into these allegations by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and Congress failed, Spitzer's office used its subpoena power to obtain corporate documents, building cases against the firms both in courtrooms and in public opinion.

Tenure overview

He ran for re-election to a second term in 2002. Spitzer defeated Republican Judge Dora Irizarry 66%–30%.[31]

2002

[30] (48%).Rockland (52%), and Westchester (67%), Queens (75%), Kings (80%), Bronx (81%), New York. Amazingly, he won just 6 counties in the state: upstate In November, Spitzer went on to defeat Republican incumbent Dennis Vacco by a small margin of victory of 0.6%. Spitzer didn't win a single county in the [29] endorsed Spitzer saying both candidates were flawed but "Vacco's performance and his key policy positions make him an even worse choice. In only four years Mr. Vacco has turned an important office with a distinguished public-service tradition into a patronage mill known for taking suspect contributions and for his mixed record on such key issues as women's right to abortion." They also said "Spitzer has promised a politically moderate approach that puts the public interest ahead of rigid philosophy and special-interest contributors."New York Times On October 28, the [28]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.