World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Excessive daytime sleepiness

Article Id: WHEBN0007183233
Reproduction Date:

Title: Excessive daytime sleepiness  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Narcolepsy, Idiopathic hypersomnia, Sleep state misperception, Sodium oxybate, Sleep
Collection: Sleep Disorders
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Excessive daytime sleepiness

daytime hypersomnia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F51.1, G47.1
ICD-9-CM 291.82, 292.85, 307.43-307.44, 327.1, 780.53-780.54
eMedicine med/3129
MeSH D006970

Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is characterized by persistent sleepiness and often a general lack of energy, even after apparently adequate or even prolonged night time sleep. EDS can be considered as a broad condition encompassing several sleep disorders where increased sleep is a symptom, or as a symptom of another underlying disorder like narcolepsy, sleep apnea or a circadian rhythm disorder.

Some persons with EDS, including those with hypersomnias like narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia, are compelled to nap repeatedly during the day; fighting off increasingly strong urges to sleep during inappropriate times such as while driving, while at work, during a meal, or in conversations. As the compulsion to sleep intensifies, the ability to complete tasks sharply diminishes, often mimicking the appearance of intoxication. During occasional unique and/or stimulating circumstances, a person with EDS can sometimes remain animated, awake and alert, for brief or extended periods of time. EDS can affect the ability to function in family, social, occupational, or other settings. A proper diagnosis of the underlying cause and ultimately treatment of symptoms and/or the underlying cause can help mitigate such complications.[1]

Contents

  • Diagnosis 1
  • Causes 2
  • Treatment 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Diagnosis

An adult who is compelled to nap repeatedly during the day may have excessive daytime sleepiness. However, it is important to distinguish between occasional daytime sleepiness and excessive daytime sleepiness, which is chronic.

A number of tools for screening for EDS have been developed. One is the Epworth Sleepiness Scale which grades the results of a questionnaire. The ESS generates a numerical score from zero (0) to 24 where a score of ten [10] or higher may indicate that the person should consult a specialist in sleep medicine for further evaluation. A self test is available at the author's website.

Another tool is the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), which has been used since the 1970s. It is used to measure the time it takes from the start of a daytime nap period to the first signs of sleep, called sleep latency. The test is based on the idea that the sleepier people are, the faster they will fall asleep.

Causes

EDS can be a symptom of a number of factors and disorders. Specialists in sleep medicine are trained to diagnose them. Some are:

Treatment

Treatment of EDS relies on identifying and treating the underlying disorder which may cure the person from the EDS. Drugs like modafinil,[3] Armodafinil,[4] Xyrem (sodium oxybate) oral solution, have been approved as treatment for EDS symptoms in the U.S. There is declining usage of other drugs such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), amphetamine (Adderall), lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse), methamphetamine (Desoxyn), and pemoline (Cylert), as these psychostimulants have several adverse effects and addictive properties.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ Guilleminault, C; Brooks, SN (August 2001). "Excessive daytime sleepiness: a challenge for the practising neurologist.". Brain : a journal of neurology 124 (Pt 8): 1482–91.  
  2. ^ "How to Stop Snoring". Sleep Apnea. Retrieved 15 August 2015. 
  3. ^ Valentino, RM; Foldvary-Schaefer, N (August 2007). "Modafinil in the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness.". Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine 74 (8): 561–6, 568–71.  
  4. ^ Nishino, S; Okuro, M (June 2008). "Armodafinil for excessive daytime sleepiness.". Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain : 1998) 44 (6): 395–414.  
  5. ^ Harris, SF; Monderer, RS; Thorpy, M (November 2012). "Hypersomnias of central origin.". Neurologic clinics 30 (4): 1027–44.  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.