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Green Mountain Boys

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Green Mountain Boys

Green Mountain Boys
Active October 24, 1764[1]
Spanish–American War
Country  Kingdom of Great Britain
Vermont Republic
 United States
Allegiance  Vermont
Type Infantry
Part of Vermont Militia
Colors Green, blue, white
(gold fringe is modern decorative)
Engagements
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Ethan Allen
Ira Allen
Seth Warner

The Green Mountain Boys were a militia organization first established in the late 1760s in the territory between the British provinces of New York and New Hampshire, known as the New Hampshire Grants (which later became the state of Vermont). Headed by Ethan Allen and members of his extended family, they were instrumental in resisting New York's attempts to control the territory, over which it had won de jure control in a territorial dispute with New Hampshire.

Some companies served in the American Revolutionary War, including notably when the Green Mountain Boys led by Ethan Allen captured Fort Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain on May 10, 1775; and invaded Canada later in 1775. In early June of 1775, Ethan Allen and his then subordinate, Seth Warner, induced the Continental Congress at Philadelphia to create a Continental Army ranger regiment from the then New Hampshire Grants. Having no treasury, the Congress directed that New York's revolutionary Congress pay for the newly authorized regiment. In July of 1775, Allen's militia was granted support from the New York revolutionary Congress.

The Green Mountain Boys disbanded more than a year before Vermont declared its independence in 1777 from Great Britain "as a separate, free and independent jurisdiction or state". The Vermont Republic operated for 14 years, before being admitted in 1791 to the United States as the 14th state.

The remnants of the Green Mountain Boys militia were largely reconstituted as the Green Mountain Continental Rangers. Command of the newly formed regiment passed from Allen to Seth Warner. Allen joined the staff of the Northern Army of New York's Major General Philip Schuyler and was given the rank of lieutenant colonel. Under Warner the regiment fought at the battles of Hubbardton and Bennington in 1777. The regiment was disbanded in 1779.[2][3][4][5]

The Green Mountain Boys mustered again during the War of 1812, the Civil War, and the Spanish-American War. Today it is the informal name of the Vermont National Guard, which comprises both the Army and Air National Guards.

Historical unit

The original Green Mountain Boys were a militia organized in what is now southwestern Vermont in the decade prior to the American Revolutionary War. They comprised settlers and land speculators who held New Hampshire titles to lands between the Connecticut River and Lake Champlain, an area then known as the New Hampshire Grants, that is now modern Vermont. New York was given legal control of the area by a decision of the British crown and refused to respect the New Hampshire titles and town charters. Although a few towns with New York land titles, notably Brattleboro on the Connecticut River, supported the change, the vast majority of the settlers in the sparsely populated frontier region rejected the authority of New York.

With several hundred members, the Green Mountain Boys effectively controlled the area where New Hampshire grants had been issued. They were led by , all in New York. The Boys also briefly held St. John's in Québec, but retreated on word of arriving British regulars. The Green Mountain Boys later formed the basis of the Vermont militia that selected Seth Warner as its leader. Some of the Green Mountain Boys preferred to stick with Ethan Allen and were captured along with Allen in August 1775 in a bungled attempt to capture the city of Montreal. Some members of this unit were Congressman Matthew Lyon and Lieutenant Benjamin Tucker. Benjamin Tucker joined the British Military during his capture, because of this his name was rebuked by Ethan Allen and his men.

Vermont eventually declared itself an independent nation in January 1777, and organized a government based in Haldimand Affair some members of the Green Mountain Boys became involved in secret negotiations with British officials about restoring the Crown's rule over the territory.

The Vermont Army version of the Green Mountain Boys faded away after Vermont joined the United States as the 14th U.S. state in 1791, although the Green Mountain Boys mustered for the War of 1812, The Civil War, the Spanish-American War, and following World War I as the Vermont National Guard.

Notable members

Flag

A remnant of a Green Mountain Boys flag, believed to belong to John Stark, is owned by the Bennington Museum. It still exists as one of the few regimental flags from the American Revolution. Although Stark was at the Battle of Bennington and likely flew this flag, the battle has become more commonly associated with the Bennington flag, which is believed to be a 19th-century banner.[12]

Vermont National Guard

Today, the Vermont Army National Guard and Vermont Air National Guard are collectively known as the Vermont National Guard or the "Green Mountain Boys", even though women have served in both branches since the mid-twentieth century. Both units use the original Green Mountain Boys battle flag as their banner.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Goodrich, John E. (1904). Rolls of the Soldiers in the Revolutionary War, 1775 to 1783. Rutland, Vt.: The Tuttle Company. Muster Roll of the first Company of Militia in the town of Bennington, organized October 24, 1764 
  2. ^ John J. Duffy, Samuel B. Hand & Ralph H. Orth, - "Green Mountain Boys"The Vermont Encyclopedia, 2003, pages 143-144
  3. ^ John J. Duffy, Samuel B. Hand & Ralph H. Orth, The Vermont Encyclopedia - Green Mountain Continental Rangers, 2003, page 144
  4. ^ Gavin K. Watt, The Burning of the Valleys: Daring Raids from Canada Against the New York Frontier in the Fall of 1780, 1997
  5. ^ State of New York, Public Papers of the Governors of New York, 1900, pages 123-124
  6. ^ Michael A. Bellesiles, Revolutionary Outlaws: Ethan Allen and the Struggle for Independence on the Early American Frontier, 1993, page 34
  7. ^ Henry Hall, Ethan Allen: The Robin Hood of Vermont, 1892, page 172
  8. ^ Emily Raabe, Ethan Allen: The Green Mountain Boys and Vermont's Path to Statehood, 2002, page 740
  9. ^ Willard Sterne Randall, Ethan Allen: His Life and Times, 2011, page 261
  10. ^ James Fairfax McLaughlin, Matthew Lyon, the Hampden of Congress, 1900, page 116
  11. ^ Federal Writers' Project, Vermont: A Guide to the Green Mountain State, 1937, page 70
  12. ^ Cooper, 30

References

External links

  • Ethan Allen History: Green Mountain Boys
  • Novel: Memoir of a Green Mountain Boy
  • Soldiers of the Revolutionary War buried in Vermont
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