Pi (; Greek: , uppercase Π, lowercase π) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, representing [p]. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 80. It was derived from the Phoenician letter pe . Letters that arose from pi include Cyrillic Pe (П, п), Coptic pi (Ⲡ, ⲡ), and Gothic pairthra (𐍀).
Contents

Symbol 1

History 2

Variant pi 3

Character Encodings 4

See also 5

References 6
Symbol
The uppercase letter Π is used as a symbol for:
The lowercase letter π is used as a symbol for:
History
An early form of pi was , appearing almost like a gamma with a hook.
In the book 'L'alphabet grec', T. H. de Mortain speculates that letter П is a gate, since it is the first letter of "πύλη" (gate of town or temple). Allegedly, the Greeks wanted to represent the shape of the entrance to civilization, such as the gate of the lions in Mycenae. This hypothesis is not shared by any other authority in the field and has no other attestation.
Variant pi
Variant pi or "pomega" (\varpi\,\! or ϖ) is a glyph variant of lower case pi sometimes used in technical contexts as though it were a lowercase omega with a macron, though historically it is simply a cursive form of pi, with its legs bent inward to meet. It is used as a symbol for:
The various forms of pi are present in Unicode as:

U+03A0 Π greek capital letter pi (HTML
Π
· Π
)

U+03C0 π greek small letter pi (HTML
π
· π
)

U+03D6 ϖ greek pi symbol (HTML
ϖ
· ϖ
)

U+220F ∏ nary product (HTML
∏
· ∏
)

U+1D28 ᴨ greek letter small capital pi (HTML
ᴨ
)

U+1D70B 휋 mathematical italic small pi (HTML
𝜋
)

U+1D6D1 훑 mathematical bold small pi (HTML
𝛑
).^{[3]}
Character Encodings
Character

Π

π

ϖ

Ⲡ

ⲡ

Unicode name

GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PI

GREEK SMALL LETTER PI

GREEK PI SYMBOL

COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER PI

COPTIC SMALL LETTER PI

Encodings

decimal

hex

decimal

hex

decimal

hex

decimal

hex

decimal

hex

Unicode

928

U+03A0

960

U+03C0

982

U+03D6

11424

U+2CA0

11425

U+2CA1

UTF8

206 160

CE A0

207 128

CF 80

207 150

CF 96

226 178 160

E2 B2 A0

226 178 161

E2 B2 A1

Numeric character reference

Π

Π

π

π

ϖ

ϖ

Ⲡ

Ⲡ

ⲡ

ⲡ

Named character reference

Π

π

ϖ



DOS Greek

143

8F

167

A7







DOS Greek2

198

C6

234

EA







Windows 1253

208

D0

240

F0







TeX

\Pi

\pi

\varpi



Character

∏

∐

횷

훑

훱

휋

Unicode name

NARY PRODUCT

NARY COPRODUCT

MATHEMATICAL BOLD
CAPITAL PI

MATHEMATICAL BOLD
SMALL PI

MATHEMATICAL ITALIC
CAPITAL PI

MATHEMATICAL ITALIC
SMALL PI

Encodings

decimal

hex

decimal

hex

decimal

hex

decimal

hex

decimal

hex

decimal

hex

Unicode

8719

U+220F

8720

U+2210

120503

U+1D6B7

120529

U+1D6D1

120561

U+1D6F1

120587

U+1D70B

UTF8

226 136 143

E2 88 8F

226 136 144

E2 88 90

240 157 154 183

F0 9D 9A B7

240 157 155 145

F0 9D 9B 91

240 157 155 177

F0 9D 9B B1

240 157 156 139

F0 9D 9C 8B

UTF16

8719

220F

8720

2210

55349 57015

D835 DEB7

55349 57041

D835 DED1

55349 57073

D835 DEF1

55349 57099

D835 DF0B

Numeric character reference

∏

∏

∐

∐

𝚷

𝚷

𝛑

𝛑

𝛱

𝛱

𝜋

𝜋

Named character reference

∏






Character

휫

흅

흥

흿

힟

ힹ

Unicode name

MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC
CAPITAL PI

MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC
SMALL PI

MATHEMATICAL SANSSERIF
BOLD CAPITAL PI

MATHEMATICAL SANSSERIF
BOLD SMALL PI

MATHEMATICAL SANSSERIF
BOLD ITALIC CAPITAL PI

MATHEMATICAL SANSSERIF
BOLD ITALIC SMALL PI

Encodings

decimal

hex

decimal

hex

decimal

hex

decimal

hex

decimal

hex

decimal

hex

Unicode

120619

U+1D72B

120645

U+1D745

120677

U+1D765

120703

U+1D77F

120735

U+1D79F

120761

U+1D7B9

UTF8

240 157 156 171

F0 9D 9C AB

240 157 157 133

F0 9D 9D 85

240 157 157 165

F0 9D 9D A5

240 157 157 191

F0 9D 9D BF

240 157 158 159

F0 9D 9E 9F

240 157 158 185

F0 9D 9E B9

UTF16

55349 57131

D835 DF2B

55349 57157

D835 DF45

55349 57189

D835 DF65

55349 57215

D835 DF7F

55349 57247

D835 DF9F

55349 57273

D835 DFB9

Numeric character reference

𝜫

𝜫

𝝅

𝝅

𝝥

𝝥

𝝿

𝝿

𝞟

𝞟

𝞹

𝞹

These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style.
See also
References

^ "Pomega  from Eric Weisstein's World of Physics". wolfram.com.

^ Outline for Weeks 14&15, Astronomy 225 Spring 2008

^ "Unicode characters supported by the Calibri font". fileformat.info.

^ Unicode Code Charts: Greek and Coptic (Range: 037003FF)
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