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Religion in the Philippines


Religion in the Philippines

Dominant religion by province, Christianity (blue) and Islam (green).

The Philippines is a secular nation with a constitutional separation of church and state. As a result of Spanish cultural influence, Religion in the Philippines is marked by a majority of people being of the Christian faith (~90%).[1] The Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia, the other being East Timor, a former Portuguese colony. More than 90% of the population are Christians: about 80.6% belong to the Roman Catholic Church while about 9.5% belong to Protestant Christian denominations, such as the Iglesia ni Cristo, the Philippine Independent Church, United Church of Christ in the Philippines (a mainline Protestant United Church), and Jehovah's Witnesses.[1]

According to the National Commission of Muslim Filipinos(NCMF), the Muslim population of the Philippines is about 11% of the total population.[2] Most of them live in parts of Mindanao, Palawan, and the Sulu Archipelago – an area known as Bangsamoro or the Moro region.[3][4] Some have migrated into urban and rural areas in different parts of the country. Most Muslim Filipinos practice Sunni Islam according to the Shafi'i school.[5] There are some Ahmadiyya Muslims in the country.[6] Philippine traditional religions are still practiced by an estimated 2% of the population,[7][8] made up of many aboriginal and tribal groups. These religions are often syncretized with Christianity and Islam. Animism, folk religion, and shamanism remain present as undercurrents of mainstream religion, through the albularyo, the babaylan, and the manghihilot. Buddhism is practiced by 1% of the populations,[7][8] and together with Taoism and Chinese folk religion it is dominant in Chinese communities.[4] There are smaller number of followers of Hinduism, Sikhism, and Judaism and Baha'i.[9] Less than one percent of the population is non-religious.[7][8]


  • Ancient indigenous beliefs 1
  • Bahá'í Faith 2
  • Buddhism 3
  • Christianity 4
    • Roman Catholicism 4.1
      • Papal visits 4.1.1
    • Iglesia ni Cristo 4.2
    • Jesus Miracle Crusade International Ministry 4.3
    • Members Church of God International 4.4
    • Filipino Catholic Church 4.5
    • Apostolic Catholic Church 4.6
    • Orthodox Church 4.7
    • Protestantism 4.8
    • Latter Day Saints 4.9
    • Other Christians 4.10
  • Islam 5
    • History 5.1
    • Muslim Mindanao 5.2
  • Judaism 6
  • Hinduism 7
  • Atheism and agnosticism 8
  • Religion and Politics 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11

Ancient indigenous beliefs

During pre-colonial times, a form of animism was widely practiced in the Philippines. Today, the Philippines is mostly Catholic and Christian, and only a handful of the indigenous tribes continue to practice the old traditions. These are a collection of beliefs and cultural mores anchored more or less in the idea that the world is inhabited by spirits and supernatural entities, both good and bad, and that respect be accorded to them through nature worship. These spirits all around nature are known as "diwatas", showing cultural relationship with Hinduism (Devatas).

Wooden images of ancestral spirits (anito) in a museum in Bontoc, Philippines

Some worship specific deities, such as the Tagalog supreme deity, Bathala, and his children Adlaw, Mayari, and Tala, or the Visayan deity Kan-Laon; while others practice Ancestor worship (anitos). Variations of animistic practices occur in different ethnic groups. Magic, chants and prayers are often key features. Its practitioners were highly respected (and some feared) in the community, as they were healers, midwives (hilot), shamans, witches and warlocks (mangkukulam), priests/priestesses (babaylan/katalonan), tribal historians and wizened elders that provided the spiritual and traditional life of the community. In the Visayan regions, shamanistic and animistic beliefs in witchcraft (barang) and mythical creatures like aswang (vampires), duwende (dwarves), and bakonawa (a gigantic sea serpent), may exist in some indigenous peoples alongside more mainstream Christian and Islamic faiths.

Spanish occupiers during the 16th century arrived in the Philippines noting about warrior priestesses leading tribal spiritual affairs. Many were condemned as pagan heretics. Although suppressed, these matriarchal tendencies run deep in Filipino society and can still be seen in the strong leadership roles modern Filipino women are assuming in business, politics, academia, the arts and in religious institutions.

Nominally animists constitute about one percent of the population. But animism's influence pervade daily life and practice of the colonial religions that took root in the Philippines. Elements of folk belief melded with Christian and Islamic practices to give a unique perspective on these religions.

Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith in the Philippines started in 1921 with the first Bahá'í first visiting the Philippines that year,[10] and by 1944 a Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly was established.[11] In the early 1960s, during a period of accelerated growth, the community grew from 200 in 1960 to 1000 by 1962 and 2000 by 1963. In 1964 the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the Philippines was elected and by 1980 there were 64,000 Bahá'ís and 45 local assemblies.[12] The Bahá'ís have been active in multi/inter-faith developments. The 2005 World Christian Encyclopedia estimates the Bahá'í population of the Philippines at about 247,500.[13]


Many Filipino customs have strong Buddhist influences. Buddhism in the Philippines is growing fast, mainly because of increasing immigration to the country. Buddhism is largely confined to the Filipino Chinese, Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Korean, Thai, and Vietnamese communities though local adherents are on the rise. There are temples in Manila, Davao, and Cebu, and other places. Several schools of Buddhism are present in the Philippines – Mahayana, Vajrayana, Theravada, as well as groups such as Soka Gakkai International.[14]


Christianity arrived in the Philippines with the landing of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521. In the late 16th century, the archipelago was claimed for Spain and named it after its king. Missionary activity during the country's colonial rule by Spain and the United States led the transformation of the Philippines into the first and then, along with East Timor, one of two predominantly Christian nations in East Asia, with approximately 92.5% of the population belonging to the Christian faith.[7][15]

Roman Catholicism

The Catholic Cebu Metropolitan Cathedral, built on the site of the Church of St. Vitales, the first church built in the Philippines

Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion and the largest Christian denomination, with estimates of approximately 80% of the population belonging to this faith in the Philippines.[7] The country has a significant Spanish Catholic tradition, and Spanish style Catholicism is embedded in the culture, which was acquired from priests or friars.

The Catholic Church has great influence on Philippine society and politics. One typical event is the role of the Catholic hierarchy during the bloodless People Power Revolution of 1986. Then-Archbishop of Manila and de facto Primate of the Philippines, Jaime Cardinal Sin appealed to the public via radio to march along Epifanio de los Santos Avenue in support of rebel forces. Some seven million people responded in what became known as the 1986 People Power Revolution, which lasted from 22–25 February. The non-violent revolution successfully forced dictator Ferdinand E. Marcos out of power and into exile in Hawaii.

Every year on 1 November, Filipino families celebrate the Day of the Dead, on which they spend much of the day and evening visiting their ancestral graves, showing respect and honor to their departed relatives by feasting and offering prayers. On 1 November Filipino families celebrate All Saint's Day, where they honor the saints of the Catholic Church. November 2 is All Soul's Day.

Papal visits

  • Pope Paul VI was the target of an assassination attempt at Manila International Airport in the Philippines in 1970. The assailant, a Bolivian Surrealist painter named Benjamín Mendoza y Amor Flores, lunged toward Pope Paul with a kris, but was subdued.
  • Pope John Paul II visited the country twice, 1981 and 1995. The Mass of the late pope in Manila (1995) was recorded to have been attended by 4 million people, the highest number ever recorded in papal history.
  • Pope Benedict XVI declined the invitation of Cardinal Gaudencio Rosales and CBCP President Angel Lagdameo to visit because of a hectic schedule.
  • Pope Francis is expected to visit the country in January 2015 and again in January 2016 on the occasion of the International Eucharistic Congress to be held in Cebu.

Iglesia ni Cristo

The central temple of [16] indigenous to the Philippines

Philippines.[17][18][19][20][21] Felix Y. Manalo officially registered the church with the Philippine Government on July 27, 1914[22] and because of this, most publications refer to him as the founder of the church. Felix Manalo claimed that he was restoring the church of Christ that was lost for 2,000 years. He died on April 12, 1963, aged 76.

The primary purpose of the Church is to worship the almighty God based on his teachings as taught by Jesus Christ and as recorded in the bible. The church’s major activities include worship service, missionary works, edification. According to the March 2012 issue of PASUGO Magazine (p. 24), the Demographics of the Iglesia ni Cristo then was composed of 112 countries and 7 territories comprising 110 races. The INC has outreach programs, such as its "Lingap sa Mamamayan (Tagalog: Aid for Humanity)", offering free medical and dental services, community cleanups and tree planting projects. In California, Daly City twice declared a week in July as "Iglesia ni Cristo Week" in recognition of the efforts of the INC members in community service events such as community beautification projects, blood drives, and food distribution sessions. n July 7, 2012 the INC Lingap sa Mamamayan gained three Guinness world record seal in beating the three current records in The most people involved in a dental health check, The most blood pressure readings taken in 8 hours and The most blood glucose level tests in 8 hours. Tarika Vara, the official adjudicator for Guinness World Records was so impressed with the whole organization as she observed how dedicated the volunteers were in helping other people in one whole day even without fee.

On August 17, 2011, INC led the groundbreaking of the Philippine Arena- on a 75-hectare field straddling Bocaue and Sta. Maria, Bulacan. The 55,000-seater multi-purpose structure, touted to become the world's largest indoor domed arena (by seating capacity), is expected to be completed in time for the INC's centennial celebration in July 2014. Other major projects of the church as part of its centennial celebration are the EVM Convention Center and Iglesia Ni Cristo Museum along Central Avenue, Quezon City, the Legal Department Building and the INC Media Center Building inside the INC Central Office Complex in Quezon City, the 20,000 seat Philippine Stadium, and the Philippine Sports Center. In that area now called Ciudad de Victoria (City of Victory) will also rise the 600-bed capacity EGM Medical Center and the New Era University- Bocaue Campus. One of the most significant of these "centennial projects" is the new College of Evangelical Ministry being constructed along Central Avenue. Three levels higher and more than double the floor space of its four-story predecessor.

In September 2011 the INC bought 59 parcels of land in Scenic, South Dakota for approximately $700,000. Scenic is a ghost town in western South Dakota. No plans for the land have been revealed by the church.

On November 27, 2012, the grand press launch for Ang Sugo: The Last Messenger was held at the Quezon City Sports Club, a film dramatizing the life of Felix Ysagun Manalo, and the growth of the Iglesia Ni Cristo. It is scheduled to be the largest and the most expensive movie in the history of the Philippine movie industry with over a US$7.5 million budget appointed for the production.

Jesus Miracle Crusade International Ministry

The Jesus Miracle Crusade International Ministry (JMCIM) is an apostolic Pentecostal religious group from the Philippines which believes particularly in the promotion of miracles and faith in god for healing. JMCIM was founded by evangelist Wilde E. Almeda in February 14, 1975.

Members Church of God International

Ang Dating Daan (English for the "The Old Path"). This group is an offshoot of Nicholas Perez's Iglesia ng Diyos kay Kristo Hesus Haligi at Suhay ng Katotohanan (Church of God in Christ Jesus, Pillar and Support of the Truth). The church does not claim to be part of the restorationist movement but shows characteristics of such. They accept the divinity of Christ but reject the doctrine of Trinity. They also reject various doctrines fundamental for mainstream Christianity and more notably, the Roman Catholic Church. Thousands of local chapters are scattered throughout the Philippines and abroad because of increasing number of membership through mass baptisms.[23]

The church is known for their "Bible Expositions", where guests and members are given a chance to ask any biblical question to the Presiding Minister of the church, [24]

The Church has growing congregations in South America, particularly Brazil. Ang Dating Daan now airs in 73 countries worldwide including United States, Latin America, Papua New Guinea, Portugal (as "O Caminho Antigo"), Spain (as "El Camino Antiguo"), India, South Africa, Saipan and Canada.[25]

Besides general preaching, they also established charity works. Among these humanitarian services are the charity homes for the senior citizens and orphaned children and teenagers; transient homes; medical missions; full college scholarship; start-up capital for livelihood projects; vocational trainings for the differently-abled; free legal assistance; free bus, jeepney, and train rides for commuters and senior citizens, and; free Bible for everyone. In its effort to save lives, MCGI is now one of the major blood donor in the Philippines acknowledged by the Philippine National Red Cross.[26]

Filipino Catholic Church

Iglesia Filipina Independiente Parish of the Virgin of the Assumption in Maragondon, Cavite.

The Philippine Independent Church (officially Spanish: Iglesia Filipina Independiente, IFI; colloquially known as the Aglipayan Church) is an independent Christian denomination in the form of a national church in the Philippines. Its schism from the Catholic Church was proclaimed in 1902 by the members of the Unión Obrera Democrática Filipina due to the alleged mistreatment of Filipinos by Spanish priests and the execution of nationalist José Rizal under Spanish colonial rule.

Isabelo de los Reyes was one of the initiators of the separation, and suggested that former Catholic priest Gregorio Aglipay be the head of the church. It is also known as the Aglipayan Church after its first Obispo Maximo, Gregorio Aglipay.

Commonly shared beliefs in the Aglipayan Church are the rejection of the Apostolic Succession solely to the Petrine Papacy, the acceptance of priestly ordination of women, the free option of clerical celibacy, the tolerance to join Freemasonry groups, non-committal in belief regarding transubstantiation and Real Presence of the Eucharist, and the advocacy of contraception and same-sex civil rights among its members. Many saints canonised by Rome after the schism are also not officially recognised by the Aglipayan church and its members.

Today, Aglipayans in the Philippines number at least 2 million members, with most from the northern part of Luzon, especially in the Ilocos Region. Congregations are also found throughout the Philippine diaspora in North America, Europe, Middle East and Asia. The church is the second-largest single Christian denomination in the country after the Roman Catholic Church (some 80.2% of the population), comprising about 2.6% of the total population of the Philippines.

Apostolic Catholic Church

The Apostolic Catholic Church (ACC) is a catholic denomination founded in the 1980s in Hermosa, Bataan. It formally separated in the Roman Catholic Church in 1992 when Patriarch Dr. John Florentine Teruel registered it as a Protestant and Independent Catholic denomination. Today, it has more than 5 million members worldwide. The largest international congregations are in Japan, USA and Canada.

Orthodox Church

Orthodoxy has been continuously present in the Philippines for more than 200 years.[27] It is represented by two groups, by the Exarchate of the Philippines (a jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople governed by the Orthodox Metropolitanate of Hong Kong and Southeast Asia), and by the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Mission in the Philippines (a jurisdiction of the Antiochian Orthodox Church governed by the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia, New Zealand, and All Oceania). Today, there are about 560 Orthodox in the Philippines.[28]


Protestantism arrived in the Philippines with the coming of the Americans at the turn of the 20th century. In 1898, Spain lost the Philippines to the United States. After a bitter fight for independence against its new occupiers, Filipinos surrendered and were again colonized. The arrival of Protestant American missionaries soon followed. Protestant church organizations established in the Philippines during the 20th century include the following:

Latter Day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) in the Philippines was founded during the Spanish-American War in 1898. Two men from Utah who were members of the United States artillery battery, and who were also set apart as missionaries by the Church before they left the United States, preached while stationed in the Philippines. Missionary work picked up after World War II, and in 1961 the Church was officially registered in the Philippines.[30] In 1969, the Church had spread to eight major islands and had the highest number of baptisms of any area in the Church. A temple was built in 1984 which located in Quezon City and another in Cebu City, completed in 2010. Membership was 675,000 in 2013.[31]

Other Christians


Mosque in Marawi City in the Philippines.

The Muslim population of the Philippines is estimated at 5–11%.[39]The vast majority of Muslims in Philippines follow Sunni Islam of Shafi school of jurisprudence, with small Shiite and Ahmadiyya minorities.[40] Islam is the oldest recorded monotheistic religion in the Philippines. Islam reached the Philippines in the 14th century with the arrival of Muslim traders from the Persian Gulf, Southern India, and their followers from several sultanate governments in Maritime Southeast Asia. Islam's predominance reached all the way to the shores of Manila Bay, home to several Muslim kingdoms. During the Spanish conquest, Islam reached a rapid decline as the predominant monotheistic faith in the Philippines as a result of the introducing of Roman Catholicism by Spanish missionaries. The southern Filipino tribes were among the few indigenous Filipino communities that resisted Spanish rule and conversions to Roman Catholicism.


Mosque in Isabela City.

In 1380 Karim ul' Makhdum the first Arabian trader reached the Sulu Archipelago and Jolo in the Philippines and through trade throughout the island established Islam in the country. In 1390 the Minangkabau's Prince Rajah Baguinda and his followers preached Islam on the islands.[41] The Sheik Karimal Makdum Mosque was the first mosque established in the Philippines on Simunul in Mindanao in the 14th century. Subsequent settlements by Arab missionaries traveling to Malaysia and Indonesia helped strengthen Islam in the Philippines and each settlement was governed by a Datu, Rajah and a Sultan.

By the next century conquests had reached the Sulu islands in the southern tip of the Philippines where the population was animistic and they took up the task of converting the animistic population to Islam with renewed zeal. By the 15th century, half of Luzon (Northern Philippines) and the islands of Mindanao in the south had become subject to the various Muslim sultanates of Borneo and much of the population in the South were converted to Islam. However, the Visayas was largely dominated by Hindu-Buddhist societies led by rajahs and datus who strongly resisted Islam. One reason could be due to the economic and political disasters prehispanic Muslim pirates from the Mindanao region bring during raids. These frequent attacks gave way to naming present-day Cebu as then-Sugbo or scorched earth which was a defensive technique implemented by the Visayans so the pirates have nothing much to loot.[42][43]

Moro (derived from the Spanish word meaning Moors) is the appellation inherited from the Spaniards, for Filipino Muslims and tribal groups of Mindanao. The Moros seek to establish an independent Islamic province in Mindanao to be named Bangsamoro. The term Bangsamoro is a combination of an Old Malay word meaning nation or state with the Spanish word Moro. A significant Moro rebellion occurred during the Philippine-American War. Conflicts and rebellion have continued in the Philippines from the pre-colonial period up to the present.

Muslim Mindanao

The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) comprises the Philippines' predominantly Muslim provinces, namely: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi, and the Islamic City of Marawi. It is the only region with its own government. The regional capital is at Cotabato City, although this city is outside of its jurisdiction.


Even since the 1590s some Jews fleeing from The Inquisition were recorded to have come to the Philippines. As of 2005, Filipino Jews number at the very most 500 people. As of 2011, Metro Manila boasts the largest Jewish community in the Philippines, which consists of roughly 100 families.[44]

The country's only synagogue, Beth Yaacov, is located in Makati.[44] There are other Jews elsewhere in the country,[44] but these are obviously fewer and almost all transients,[45] either diplomats or business envoys, and their existence is almost totally unknown in mainstream society. There are a few Israelis in Manila recruiting caregivers for Israel, some work in call centers, businessmen and a few other executives. A number are converts to Judaism.


Today Hinduism is largely confined to the Indian Filipinos and the expatriate Indian community. Theravada and Vajrayana Buddhism, are practiced by Tibetans, Sri Lankan, Burmese and Thai nationals. There are Hindu temples in Manila, as well as in the provinces. There are temples also for Sikhism, sometimes located near Hindu temples. The two Paco temples are well known, comprising a Hindu temple and a Sikh temple.

Hinduism and Vajrayana Buddhism has existed in the Philippines for centuries. A great deal of Philippine mythology is derived from Hindu mythology. Hinduism arrived when the Hindu religion and culture arrived from India by southern Indians to Southeast Asia from the 4th centuries to the 14th century.[46] The Srivijaya Empire and Majapahit Empire on what is now Malaysia and Indonesia, introduced Hinduism and Buddhism to the islands.[47] Ancient statues of Hindu-Buddhist gods have been found in the Philippines dating as far back as 600 to 1600 years from present.[48]

Atheism and agnosticism

Dentsu Communication Institute Inc., Research Centre for Japan said in 2006 that about 11% of the population are Atheist or Agnostic.[49] Discussions on atheism are active in academic institutions such as the University of the Philippines.

On February 2009, Atheist Alliance International, Institute for Science and Human Values, and the International Humanist and Ethical Union, as one among secular organizations that promotes free thought and scientific development in the Philippines.

Religion and Politics

The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines declares: The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable. (Article II, Section 6), and, No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights. (Article III, Section 5). Joaquin Bernas, a Filipino Jesuit specializing in constitutional law, acknowledges that there were complex issues that were brought to court and numerous attempts to use the separation of Church and State against the Roman Catholic Church, but he defends the statement, saying that the fact that he [Marcos] tried to do it does not deny the validity of the separation of church and state.[52]

On April 28, 2004, the Philippines Supreme Court reversed the ruling of a lower court ordering five religious leaders to refrain from endorsing a candidate for elective office.[53][54] Manila Judge Conception Alarcon-Vergara ruled that the "head of a religious organization who influences or threatens to punish members could be held liable for coercion and violation of citizen's right to vote freely". The lawsuit filed by Social Justice Society party stated that "the Church’s active participation in partisan politics, using the awesome voting strength of its faithful flock, will enable it to elect men to public office who will in turn be forever beholden to its leaders, enabling them to control the government". They claimed that this violates the Philippine constitution's separation of Church and State clause. The named respondents were Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila Luis Antonio Cardinal Tagle, El Shaddai Movement Leader Mike Velarde, Iglesia ni Cristo Executive Minister Eduardo V. Manalo and Jesus Is Lord Church leader Eddie Villanueva.Manalo's Iglesia ni Cristo practices bloc voting. Former Catholic Archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin had been instrumental in rallying support for the assumption to power of Corazon Aquino and Gloria Arroyo. Velarde supported Fidel Ramos, Joseph Estrada and Gloria Arroyo while Villanueva endorsed Fidel Ramos and Jose De Venecia. The papal nuncio agreed with the decision of the lower court[55] while the other respondents challenged the decision.[56][57]

See also


  1. ^ a b Philippines in Figures : 2014, National Statistics Office.
  2. ^
  3. ^ RP closer to becoming observer-state in Organization of Islamic Conference. (2009-05-29). The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2009-07-10, "Eight million Muslim Filipinos, representing 10 percent of the total Philippine population, ...".
  4. ^ a b U.S. Department of State. (2008). Philippines: International Religious Freedom Report 2010. Retrieved 2011-05-20, "Islam is the largest minority religion, and Muslims constitute between 5 and 9 percent of the total population."
  5. ^ McAmis, Robert Day (2002). Malay Muslims: The History and Challenge of Resurgent Islam in Southeast Asia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 18–24, 53–61.  
  6. ^ R Michael Feener, Terenjit Sevea. Islamic Connections: Muslim Societies in South and Southeast Asia. p. 144. Retrieved June 7, 2014. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Philippines, CIA Factbook
  8. ^ a b c Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project: Philippines. Pew Research Center. 2010.
  9. ^ The Largest Baha'i Communities. (2005-09-30). Retrieved 2010-04-26 from
  10. ^ Hassall, Graham; Austria, Orwin (January 2000). "Mirza Hossein R. Touty: First Bahá'í known to have lived in the Philippines". Essays in Biography. Asia Pacific Bahá'í Studies. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  11. ^  
  12. ^ Universal House of Justice (198). In Memoriam. The Bahá'í World of the Bahá'í Era 136–140 (1979–1983). XVIII (Bahá'í World Centre). Table of Contents and pp.513, 652–9.  
  13. ^ "Most Baha'i Nations (2005)". QuickLists > Compare Nations > Religions >. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2005. Retrieved 2009-07-04. 
  14. ^ "History; Philippines". Sangha Pinoy. Retrieved 2008-05-13. 
  15. ^ Timor-Leste, CIA Factbook
  16. ^ "IGLESIA NI CRISTO - Church of Christ - Official Website". Organization. Iglesia ni Cristo. p. Independent. Retrieved 25 March 2013. 
  17. ^ "Iglesia ni Kristo". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-05. 
  18. ^ Sanders, Albert J., "An Appraisal of the Iglesia ni Cristo," in Studies in Philippine Church History, ed. Anderson, Gerald H. (Cornell University Press, 1969)
  19. ^ Bevans, Stephen B.; Schroeder, Roger G. Constants in Context: A Theology of Mission for Today (American Society of Missiology Series). Orbis Books. p. 269.  
  20. ^ Carnes, Tony; Yang, Fenggang (2004). Asian American religions: the making and remaking of borders and boundaries. New York: New York University Press. p. 352.  
  21. ^ Kwiatkowski, Lynn M. Struggling With Development: The Politics Of Hunger And Gender In The Philippines. Westview Press. p. 286.  
  22. ^ Palafox, Quennie Ann J. 'First Executive Minister of the Iglesia ni Cristo (Church of Christ)' "National Historical Institute"
  23. ^ Ang Dating Daan + Adherent | “Let love be without dissimulation. Abhor that which is evil; cleave to that which is good.” — Romans 12:9 (KJV) | Page 3
  24. ^ Events - Members Church of God International (MCGI)
  25. ^ Saipan Tribune - Members Church of God International Worldwide Bible Exposition
  26. ^ Philippine Red Cross | News
  27. ^ "Orthodox Christians in Philippines". Orthodox Church in the Philippines. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  28. ^ Article Provided By Rev. Philemon Castro. "The Orthodox Church In The Philippines". Dimitris Papadias, Professor at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hong Kong. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  29. ^ Union Espiritista Cristiana de Filipinas, Inc. - Home
  30. ^ "New Temple Announcement Answers Members’ Prayers". News of the Church.  
  31. ^ Philippines - LDS Statistics and Church Facts | Total Church Membership
  32. ^ 2003 Yearbook of Jehovah’s Witnesses, p.154
  33. ^ Awake! January 8, 1994, p.22
  34. ^ G.R. No. 95770 March 1, 1993. Retrieved on 2012-03-27.
  35. ^ 2014 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. JW.Org. Retrieved on 2014-05-22.
  36. ^ "List of websites of other Religions in the Philippines". Retrieved 2007-08-07. 
  37. ^ "Christian Flags". Retrieved 2007-08-07. 
  38. ^ Philippines, Adventist Atlas.
  39. ^ 2012 International Freedom Report
  40. ^ R Michael Feener, Terenjit Sevea. Islamic Connections: Muslim Societies in South and Southeast Asia. p. 144. Retrieved June 7, 2014. 
  41. ^ "Kerinduan orang-orang moro". TEMPO- Majalah Berita Mingguan. Archived from the original on 2012-02-19. Retrieved June 23, 1990. 
  42. ^ "A Rapid Journal Article Volume 10, No. 2". Celestino C. Macachor. Retrieved August 11, 2012. 
  43. ^ "The Aginid". Maria Eleanor Elape Valeros. Retrieved August 11, 2012. 
  44. ^ a b c Philippines Jewish Community. Retrieved on 2012-03-27.
  45. ^ Schlossberger, E. Cauliflower and Ketchup.
  46. ^ The Cultural Influences of India, China, Arabia, and Japan | Philippine Almanac
  47. ^ "History of Buddhism". Buddhism in the Philippines. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  48. ^ Thakur, Upendra (1986). Some Aspects of Asia and Culture. Abhinav Publications. 
  49. ^ Dentsu Communication Institute Inc., Research Centre for Japan (2006)(Japanese)
  50. ^ "Filipino Freethinkers Official Website". Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  51. ^ Catholic Philippines gains its first atheist society. Retrieved on 2012-03-27.
  52. ^ Joaquin G. Bernas (1995). The Intent of the 1986 Constitution Writers. Published & distributed by Rex Book Store. p. 86. 
  53. ^ Philippine Daily Inquirer. (2004-05-01). Retrieved on 2012-03-27.
  54. ^ Velarde vs Social Justice Society : 159357 : April 28, 2004 : J. Panganiban : En Banc : Decision. Retrieved on 2012-03-27.
  55. ^ No role for Church in politics. Manila Standard. June 22, 2003
  56. ^ Philip C. Tubeza Iglesia appeals court ruling infringing on group's belief. Philippine Daily Inquirer. July 20, 2003
  57. ^ SC ruling sought on sect's vote. Philippine Daily Inquirer. April 1, 2004
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