World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0028825877
Reproduction Date:

Title: Smartwatch  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Pebble (watch), I'm Watch, LG G Watch, Moto 360, Samsung Gear
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Pebble, a 2013 smartwatch that communicates with the user's phone using Bluetooth
The WIMM One, wearable computer powered by Android.

A smartwatch (or smart watch) is a computerized wristwatch with functionality that is enhanced beyond timekeeping. While early models can perform basic tasks, such as calculations, translations, and game-playing, modern smartwatches are effectively wearable computers. Many smartwatches run mobile apps, while a smaller number of models run a mobile operating system and function as portable media players, offering playback of FM radio, audio, and video files to the user via a Bluetooth headset. Some smartwatches models, also called watch phones, feature full mobile phone capability, and can make or answer phone calls.[1][2][3]

Such devices may include features such as a camera, accelerometer, thermometer, altimeter, barometer, compass, chronograph, calculator, cell phone, touch screen, GPS navigation, Map display, graphical display, speaker, scheduler, watch, SDcards that are recognized as a mass storage device by a computer, and rechargeable battery. It may communicate with a wireless headset, heads-up display, insulin pump, microphone, modem, or other devices.

Some also have "sport watch" functionality with activity tracker features (also known as "fitness tracker") as seen in GPS watches made for Training, Diving, and Outdoor sports. Functions may include training programs (such as intervals), Lap times, speed display, GPS tracking unit, Route tracking, dive computer, heart rate monitor compatibility, Cadence sensor compatibility, and compatibility with sport transitions (as in triathlons).

Like other computers, a smartwatch may collect information from internal or external sensors. It may control, or retrieve data from, other instruments or computers. It may support wireless technologies like Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and GPS. However, it is possible a "wristwatch computer" may just serve as a front end for a remote system, as in the case of watches utilizing cellular technology or Wi-Fi.


Early years

The first digital watch, which debuted in 1972, was the Pulsar manufactured by Hamilton Watch Company. "Pulsar" became a brand name which would later be acquired by Seiko in 1978. In 1982, a Pulsar watch (NL C01) was released which could store 24 digits, making it most likely the first watch with user-programmable memory, or "memorybank" watch.[4] With the introduction of personal computers in the 1980s, Seiko began to develop watches with computing ability. The Data 2000 watch (1983) came with an external keyboard for data-entry. Data was synced from the keyboard to the watch via electro-magnetic coupling (wireless docking). The name stems from its ability to store 2000 characters. The D409 was the first Seiko model with on-board data entry (via a miniature keyboard) and featured a dot matrix display.[5] Its memory was tiny, at only 112 digits.[4] It was released in 1984 in gold, silver and black.[6] These models were followed by many others by Seiko during the 1980s, most notably the "RC Series":

During the 1980s, Casio began to market a successful line of "computer watches", in addition to its calculator watches. Most notable was the Casio data bank series. Novelty "game watches", such as the Nelsonic game watches, were also produced by Casio and other companies.

Seiko RC series

The RC-1000 Wrist Terminal was the first Seiko model to interface with a computer, and was released in 1984.[5] It was compatible with most of the popular PCs of that time, including Apple II,II+ and IIe, the Commodore 64, IBM PC, NEC 8201, Tandy Color Computer, Model 1000, 1200, 2000 and TRS-80 Model I, III, 4 and 4p.

The RC-20 Wrist Computer was released in 1985 under the joint brand name "Seiko Epson".[7][8] It had a SMC84C00 8-bit Z-80 microprocessor; 8 KB of ROM and 2 KB of RAM. It had applications for scheduling, memos, and world time and a four-function calculator app. The dot-matrix LCD displayed 42×32 pixels, and more importantly, was touch-sensitive. Like the RC-1000, it could be connected to a personal computer, in this case through a proprietary cable. It was also notable in that it could be programmed, although its small display and limited storage severely limited application development.[5]

The RC-4000 PC Data graph also released in 1985, was dubbed the "world's smallest computer terminal".[5] It had 2 KB of storage. The RC-4500 (1985), also known as the Wrist Mac, had the same features as the RC-4000, but came in a variety of bright, flashy colors.


In 1999, Samsung launched the world's first watch phone, the SPH-WP10. It had a protruding antenna, a monochrome LCD screen, and a 90-minutes of talk time with an integrated speaker and microphone.[9]

Linux watch

The first Linux Smartwatch[10] was presented at IEEE ISSCC2000, 2000 February 7, where presenter Steve Mann was named "the father of wearable computing".[11] This Linux Smartwatch also appeared on the cover and was the feature article of LJ Issue 75.[12]

In 1998, Steve Mann invented, designed, and built the world's first Linux wristwatch,[13] which he presented at IEEE ISSCC2000, 2000 February 7, where he was named "the father of wearable computing".[11]

See also Linux Journal,[14] where Mann's Linux wristwatch appeared on the cover and was the feature article of LJ Issue 75.

In June 2000, IBM displayed a prototype for a wristwatch that ran Linux. The original version had only 6 hours of battery life, which was later extended to 12.[15] It featured 8MB of memory and ran Linux 2.2.[16] The device was later upgraded with an accelerometer, vibrating mechanism, and fingerprint sensor. IBM began to collaborate with Citizen Watch Co. to create the "WatchPad". The WatchPad 1.5 features a 320 × 240 QVGA monochrome touch sensitive display and runs Linux 2.4.[17][18] It also features calendar software, Bluetooth, 8 MB of RAM and 16 MB of flash memory.[19][20] Citizen was hoping to market the watch to students and businessmen, with a retail price of around $399.[20] However, the project was discontinued sometime around 2001–2002.


The Fossil Wrist PDA, running Palm OS c.2003.

American-based watch company Fossil, Inc. released its Fossil Wrist PDA running Palm OS.


Microsoft releases the SPOT smartwatch. SPOT stands for Smart Personal Objects Technology, an initiative by Microsoft to personalize household electronics and other everyday gadgets. The watch was supposed to offer information at a glance where other devices would have required more immersion and interaction. The SPOT Watch had a monochrome 90×126 pixel screen.[21]


In 2009, Samsung launched the S9110 Watch Phone which featured a 1.76-inch color LCD display and was 11.98 millimeters thin.[9]


Consumer device analyst Avi Greengart, from research firm Current Analysis, suggested that 2013 may be the "year of the smartwatch", as "the components have gotten small enough and cheap enough" and many consumers own smartphones that are compatible with a wearable device. Wearable technology, such as Google Glass, may evolve into a business worth US$6 billion annually and a July 2013 media report revealed that the majority of major consumer electronics manufacturers were undertaking work on a smartwatch device at the time of publication. The retail price of a smartwatch could be over US$300, plus data charges, while the minimum cost of smartphone-linked devices may be US$100.[22][23]

As of July 5, 2013, the list of companies that were engaged in smartwatch development activities consists of Acer, Apple, BlackBerry, Foxconn/Hon Hai, Google, LG, Microsoft, Qualcomm, Samsung, Sony, and Toshiba. Some notable omissions from this list include HP, HTC, Lenovo, and Nokia.[23] Science and technology journalist Christopher Mims identified the following points in relation to the future of smartwatches:

  • The physical size of smartwatches is likely to be large.
  • Insufficient battery life is an ongoing problem for smartwatch developers, as the battery life of devices at the time of publication was three to four days and this is likely to be reduced if further functions are added.
  • New display technologies will be invented as a result of smartwatch research.
  • The success level of smartwatches is unpredictable, as they may follow a similar trajectory to netbooks, or they may fulfil aims akin to those of Google Glass, another wearable electronic product.[24]

Acer's S.T. Liew stated in an interview with British gadget website Pocket-Lint, "... I think every consumer company should be looking at wearable. Wearable isn’t new … it just hasn’t exploded in the way that it should. But the opportunity’s for billions of dollars’ worth of industry."[25]

HOT Watch Curve model by PHTL features a unique directional speaker and microphone on the strap allowing for calls to be answered directly on the watch as sound would bounce off the palm of a hand and into an ear.
HOT Watch directional speaker and microphone module embedded on the strap. Magnetic charging pins at left.

As of September 4, 2013, three new smartwatches have been launched: the Samsung Galaxy Gear, Sony SmartWatch 2,[26] and the Qualcomm Toq.[27] PHTL, a company based in Dallas, Texas, US, completed is crowd-funding process on the Kickstarter website for its HOT Watch smartwatch in early September 2013. PHTL explained that the purpose of its device is to enable users to leave their handsets in their pockets or bags, as the HOT Watch has a directional speaker for phone calls in both quiet and noisy environments.[28]

In a September 2013 interview, Pebble founder Eric Migicovsky stated that his company was not interested in any acquisition offers,[29] but revealed in a November 2013 interview that his company has sold 190,000 of its smartwatch model, the majority of which were sold after its Kickstarter campaign closed.[24]

Motorola Mobility CEO Dennis Woodside confirmed that his company is working on a smartwatch device at the time of a December 6, 2013 interview.[30] Woodside showed an awareness of the difficulties that other companies have experienced with wrist-wearable technologies and explained:

There’s clearly gonna be something that changes on your wrist, how it works and what exactly it is is something our teams are working on hard. Whatever it is, it has to compete with what works now ... We can’t have something fragile, we can’t have something that needs to be charged everyday. You’re going to have to have some functionality that’s just killer otherwise why spend the money on yet another product.[24]


At the 2014 Consumer Electronics Show a large number of new smartwatches were released from various companies such as Razer Inc,[31] Archos,[32] and several other companies, as well as a few startups. Some have begun to call the 2014 CES a "wrist revolution"[33] because of the amount of smartwatches release and the huge amount of publicity they began to receive at the start of 2014.

At Google I/O on June 25, 2014, the Android Wear platform was introduced and the LG G Watch and Samsung Gear Live were released. The Wear-based Moto 360 was announced by Motorola in 2014.[34] At the end of July, Swatch's CEO Nick Hayek announced that they will launch a Swatch Touch with smartwatch technologies in 2015.[35]

The launch of Samsung's Gear S smartwatch was covered by the media in late August 2014. The model features a curved Super AMOLED display and a built-in 3G modem, with technology writer Darrell Etherington stating on the TechCrunch website, "we’re finally starting to see displays that wrap around the contours of the wrist, rather than sticking out as a traditional flat surface." The corporation will commence selling the Gear S smartwatch in October 2014 alongside the Gear Circle headset accessory.[36]

At IFA 2014 Sony Mobile announced the third generation of its smartwatch series, the Sony Smartwatch 3 powered by Android Wear.[37]

On September 9, 2014, Apple Inc. announced its first smartwatch called Apple Watch to be released in early 2015.[38]

On October 29, 2014, Microsoft announced the Microsoft Band, a smart fitness tracker and the company's first venture into wrist worn devices since SPOT (Smart Personal Objects Technology) a decade earlier. The Microsoft Band was released at $199 the following day, on October 30, 2014.[39]

Features and applications

As with other sport watches, the GPS tracking unit can be used to record historical data. For example, after the completion of a workout, data can be uploaded onto a computer or online to create a log of exercise activities for analysis. Some smart watches can serve as full GPS navigation devices, displaying maps and current coordinates. Users can "mark" their current location and then edit the entry's name and coordinates, which enables navigation to those new coordinates.

Although most smartwatch models manufactured in the 21st century are completely functional as standalone products, many of the devices that are manufactured now are required to be paired with a mobile phone running the same operating system, this allows the watch to run not only as a watch but a remote to the phone. This allows the device to alert the user to communication data such as calls, SMS messages, emails, and calendar invites.

Smartwatch Hardware comparison

Product SKU Announced SIM card Processor RAM/Flash Resolution Display Size (in) Weight (oz) Size (in) Battery (mAh) OS BT WLAN Cell GPS NFC Wireless Charging
Samsung Galaxy Gear[40] SM-V700 September 4, 2013 no Single-Core 800 MHz Exynos4212[41] 512MB/4GB 320x320 1.63 2.6 1.45x2.23x0.44 315 Android 4.0 LE
Samsung Gear 2[42] SM-R380 February 22, 2014 no Dual-Core 1 GHz Exynos3250 512MB/4GB 320x320 1.63 2.4 1.45x2.30x0.39 300 Tizen 4.0 LE
Samsung Gear 2 Neo[43] SM-R381 February 22, 2014 no Dual-Core 1 GHz Exynos3250 512MB/4GB 320x320 1.63 1.94 1.49x2.31x0.39 300 Tizen 4.0 LE
Samsung Gear Live[44] SM-R382 June 25, 2014 no Single-Core 1.2 GHz MSM8226 512MB/4GB 320x320 1.63 2.12 1.49x2.57x0.54 300 Android Wear 4.0 LE
Samsung Gear Fit[45] SM-R350 April 11, 2014 no STM32F439[46] 160 MHz 128x432 1.84 0.95 0.92x2.26x0.47 210 Samsung 4.0
Samsung Gear S SM-R750 August 28, 2014 nano-SIM Dual-Core 1 GHz 512MB/4GB 360x480 2 1.57x2.23x0.49 300 Tizen 4.1 bgn 2G/3G Yes
LG G Watch W100 June 25, 2014 ? Quad-Core 1.2 GHz MSM8226 512MB/4GB 280x280 1.65 2.22 1.57x1.83x0.39 400 Android Wear 4.0 LE
LG G Watch R[47] September 4, 2014 no Quad-Core 1.2 GHz MSM8226 512MB/4GB 320x320 1.3 1.83x1.83x0.43 410 Android Wear 4.0 LE
ASUS ZenWatch WI500Q September 3, 2014 ? Quad-Core 1.2 GHz MSM8226 512MB/4GB 320x320 1.63 2.67 1.57x1.99x0.37 410 Android Wear 4.0
Sony SmartWatch 2 SW2 June 25, 2013 no Single-Core 180 MHz CM4 220x176 1.6 2.67 1.65x1.61x0.35 140 MicroC/OS-II 3.0 Yes
Sony SmartWatch 3[48] September 3, 2014 no Quad-Core 1.2 GHz BCM23550 512MB/4GB 320x320 1.6 1.34 1.42x2.0x0.39 420 Android Wear 4.0 LE Yes Yes
Motorola Moto 360[49] Moto 360 March 18, 2014 no Single-Core 1 GHz TI OMAP 3 512MB/4MB 320x290 1.56 1.7 1.81x1.81x0.45 320 Android Wear 4.0 LE Qi
Apple Watch September 9, 2014 no Apple S1 1.5x1.28x0.5 4.0 LE bgn Yes Inductive
Pebble Watch April 11, 2012 no Single-Core STM32F205RE 120 MHz CM3 128MB/4MB 144x168 1.5 1.34 2.45x1.42x0.45 140 Pebble OS 4.0 LE
Qualcomm ToQ September 4, 2013 ? 200 MHz CM3 288x192 1.55 3.2 1.7x1.87x0.39 240 QCOM OS 3.0 WiPower

List of smart watches in production

Smart watches Company
Sony SmartWatch [50] Sony
SmartWatch 2[50] Sony
Qualcomm Toq[27] Qualcomm
Pebble Watch Pebble
Wearing Digital WEDA (Slap Band)[51] Wearing Digital
Ruputer Seiko
Timex Datalink[52] Timex Group USA
Garmin Forerunner Garmin
NikeFuel Nike, Inc.
WIMM One Wimm Labs
Motorola Motoactv Motorola
Motorola Moto 360 Motorola
MetaWatch Strata Meta Watch, Ltd
Samsung Galaxy Gear[50] Samsung
Samsung Gear 2, Gear Neo, and Gear Fit[53] Samsung
Kreyos Meteor Kreyos
GEAK Watch[54] ?
HOT Watch[28] ?
Omate TrueSmart Omate
Z1 Android Watch-Phone ?
Fashion S9110 ?
LG GD910 (limited edition) LG
Hyundai MB 910 Hyundai
ANDROID SmartWatch[55] ?
LG G Watch[56] LG
Samsung Gear Live Samsung
Samsung Gear S Samsung[36]
Microsoft Band Microsoft
  • While more are in production with current development, some companies are using popular outlets such as Kickstarter or Indiegogo to fund their projects.[57]

Smart watch comparison

Smart watch Company OS Android iOS CPU Type Bluetooth NFC Developer Options GPS Notify Link Loss Alert Notify Missed Call Notify Timer Notify View Content Call Conversation Find My Phone Voice Control Respond to Notifications Notify Sound Notify Backlit Screen Notify Vibration Ambient Light Sensor Gyroscope Magnetometer Multi-touch Accelerometer Water Resistance Clock Display Type Screen Size, Inches Screen Resolution, pixels Display Technology Average Battery Life, days Battery Capacity, mAh Battery Technology Case Diameter, mm Case Thickness, mm Wrist Band Width, mm Weight (main unit+watchband), g Wristband Options Replaceable Wristbands LED Flashlight
HOT Smart Watch PHTL Proprietary 2.3-4.2 5-7 Cortex M3 Processor 4.0 No Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Splash Proof Digital 1.26 Unknown Black and White ePaper 3 Unknown Unknown 54 8 24.4 Unknown Unknown No Yes
Pebble Pebble Pebble OS 2.3-5.0 5-7 ARM Cortex-M3 4.0 No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 50m (5 atm) Digital 1.26 144x168 Black and White ePaper 7 140 Lithium-ion 58.4 11 22 121 White, Black Yes No
Pebble Steel Pebble Pebble OS 2.3-5.0 5-7 ARM Cortex-M3 4.0 No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 50m (5 atm) Digital 1.26 Unknown Black and White ePaper Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Yes No
SmartWatch 2 Sony Micrium uC/OS-II 4.0+ No Unknown 3.0 Yes Yes Yes Unknown Unknown No Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Yes Yes No Unknown No Yes Yes Splash Proof Digital 1.6 220x176 LCD 4 Unknown Unknown 58.6 9 24 123 Unknown Yes Unknown

See also


  1. ^ Molen, Brad (2012-01-14). "Samsung Gear 2 smartwatches coming in April with Tizen OS". Retrieved 2014-07-22. 
  2. ^ Trew, James. "Sony SmartWatch 2 review". Retrieved 2014-07-22. 
  3. ^ Cooper, Daniel. "Garmin's new app turns Sony's Smartwatch 2 into a tiny sat-nav". Retrieved 2014-07-22. 
  4. ^ a b Doensen, Pieter. "Q.5 Watches with Memory and Database". WATCH. History of the modern wrist watch. Pieter Doensen. Retrieved 17 September 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Seiko Computer Watch Fun". Retrieved 17 September 2010. 
  6. ^ "SEIKO D-409". Digital Watch Library. 
  7. ^ Simon Dingle (5 September 2013). "A history of the smart watch and why nobody wants one". Medium. Medium. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  8. ^ "History of Smart Watches". Retrieved 13 September 2013. 
  9. ^ a b Neil Hughes (March 21, 2013). "The War For Your Wrist". Retrieved October 12, 2014. 
  10. ^ Canadian Patent 2275784, filed 1999 June 29, Issued 2000 Oct. 24, Wristwatch-based videoconferencing system, by Steve Mann
  11. ^ a b 'Dick Tracy' watch watchers disagree, EE Times, By Peter Clarke, (02/08/00, 9:12 p.m. EST)
  12. ^ A GNU/Linux Wristwatch Videophone
  13. ^ Canadian Patent 2275784, filed 1999 June 29, Issued 2000 Oct. 24
  14. ^ [1] Issue 75, July 1st, 2000, Pp. 86-91 + Cover
  15. ^ Shankland, Stephen (23 March 2001). "IBM clocks in with new Linux watch".  
  16. ^ "Linux on a Wrist Watch". IBM. Retrieved 15 September 2010. 
  17. ^ "WatchPad 1.5". IBM. Archived from the original on 2001-12-05. Retrieved 15 September 2010. 
  18. ^ grc15r (2010-06-20). "WatchPad 1.5". YouTube. 
  19. ^ Kanellos, Michael (11 October 2001). "Linux watch: Only time will tell".  
  20. ^ a b Miyake, Kuriko (11 October 2001). "Is That a PC on Your Wrist?".  
  21. ^ Jon Mentor (2013-03-11). "2004 Microsoft SPOT Watch". Smart Watch News. Retrieved 2014-07-22. 
  22. ^ Agence France-Presse (1 April 2013). "Time is ripe for smart watches, say analysts". NDTV Gadgets. NDTV Convergence Limited. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  23. ^ a b Christopher Mims (5 July 2013). "Almost every major consumer electronics manufacturer is now working on a smart watch". Quartz. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  24. ^ a b c Christopher Mims (11 July 2013). "What I learned from researching almost every single smart watch that has been rumored or announced". Quartz. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  25. ^ Chris Hall (14 June 2013). "Acer: We are looking at wearable, coming in 2014". Pocket-lint. Pocket-lint ltd. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  26. ^ Bhushan Akolkar (2013-09-23). "Sony Smart Watch 2 Review- Uber Smart Watch - Uber Smart Watch – Samsung Galaxy Gear – Android Smart Watches – Sony Smart Watches". Uber Smart Watch. Retrieved 2013-10-15. 
  27. ^ a b Charles Arthur (4 September 2013). "Samsung unveils Galaxy Gear as smartwatch race kicks off". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  28. ^ a b Christopher Mims (5 September 2013). "HOT Watch is the smart watch Samsung should have built". Quartz. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  29. ^ Jordan Crook (15 September 2013). "Pebble’s Eric Migicovsky Is Uninterested In A Potential Acquisition". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  30. ^  
  31. ^ Drake Johncock. "Razer Nabu Smartwatch". SmartwatchForiPhone. Retrieved 15 January 2014. 
  32. ^ Drake Johncock. "Archos Smartwatch with 3 Options". SmartwatchForiPhone. Retrieved 15 January 2014. 
  33. ^ "The best smartwatches from CES 2014". 2014-01-13. Retrieved 2014-07-22. 
  34. ^ "Moto 360". Motorola. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  35. ^ "Swatch plans fitness-based touch wristwatch". Reuters. 2014-07-27. Retrieved 2014-07-28. 
  36. ^ a b Darrell Etherington (28 August 2014). "Samsung’s New Gear S Smartwatch Features A Curved Screen And 3G Connectivity". TechCrunch. AOL, Inc. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  37. ^ "Sony expands SmartWear Experience range". September 3, 2014. Retrieved September 3, 2014. 
  38. ^ "Apple Watch announced: available for $349 early next year". September 9, 2014. Retrieved September 9, 2014. 
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^
  46. ^
  47. ^
  48. ^
  49. ^
  50. ^ a b c Hunter Skipworth; Amie Parker-Williams (6 September 2013). "Samsung Galaxy Gear vs Sony SmartWatch 2 video". Digital Spy. Hearst Magazines UK. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  51. ^ Will Schmidt (22 April 2013). "WEARING DIGITAL INTRODUCES AN OPEN PLATFORM SMARTWATCH FOR DEVELOPERS AND STUDENTS". Tech Cocktail. Tech Cocktail, LLC. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  52. ^ "Timex Corporation History". Funding Universe. Disqus. 1999. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  53. ^ Volpe, Joseph. "Meet Samsung's new smartwatch family: the Gear 2, Neo and Fit". Engadget. AOL Tech. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  54. ^ "GEAK Watch – the First Android Smart Watch". Watch Critic. Watch Critic. 24 June 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  55. ^ Android Watches (31 October 2013). "ANDROID SmartWatch™ - Debuts December 2013" (Video upload). YouTube. Google, Inc. Retrieved 3 November 2013. 
  56. ^ Molen, Brad (18 March 2014). "LG G Watch to launch next quarter with Android Wear". Engadget. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  57. ^ "Investors are putting millions into crowdfunding". 2014-04-17. Retrieved 2014-07-22. 

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.