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Timeline of three longest spans

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Timeline of three longest spans

This is the timeline of the 3 longest man-made spans in the world, all categories, that at least have the strength to carry some persons. It can be the span of any type of bridge, aerial tramway, powerline, structural ceiling or dome etc.

Overview

In this timeline, only spans that were still standing a particular year are considered for that year. This is perhaps more fair than a timeline of the records of all time, because the old figures might be incorrect. At the points when the old spans falls, new spans with more certain figures are allowed to appear in the timeline. This is a top 3 list of existing longest spans per day.

When several structures of the same length exists, the oldest is counted as the longest.

Some more rules for this timeline follows as: Only the length of the horizontal projection of the span, that is the distance that can be measured on a map, counts. When the two supports have different height above the sea level the distance between them is longer than the horizontal projection of the distance, but this longer distance doesn't count. This is because it is more difficult to build a 100m horizontal span than a 100m span that is tilted let's say 45 degrees, as if it was the support for an escalator. The stress in the material is higher for the horizontal span, creating higher engineering difficulty, so only the length of the span perpendicular to the force of gravity counts. For many structures in the timeline it is unfortunately not known if the stated length is the desired horizontal projected length, or the direct "laser beam" length.

Spanning structures in water counts only if they would still be standing if the water was removed.

The longest 5376 m Ameralik Span and others have pylons that are not completely man-made. The lines are attached to small man-made pylons that in turn stand on the mountain, which forms the rest of the height of the pylons required for a span of this huge length. If the present man-made pylons were placed in a flat area there would be no span, because the lines would touch the ground. It could be argued that this span should not appear in the timeline because the pylons are not completely man-made. However, as the focus of the engineering design task here is not to make something that is tall, but to make something that is long, it is concluded that this type of span is enough man-made to be in this timeline.

The spans of ancient structures are short. It would have been easy for somebody to tie a long rope between two poles and this way create a very long ancient span. However, the ancient people had no reason to do this, and if they did it's not documented and therefore not in this timeline. Only with the discovery of electricity and radio communication people had a reason for tying a wire between two poles, thus creating the simplest form of long spans.

The span of Pantheon, Rome is not 43.3 m because there is a hole at the top of 9.1 m, so the span have been reduced with the size of the hole to 34.2 m. The span of any structure is measured the following way: Place the largest possible imaginary horizontal circular disk under or inside the structure, barely touching any load-bearing pillars or walls, or parts used to stabilize the structure like wires. The disk must also not encircle any objects of this kind. At least one diameter of the disk have to be completely covered, that is rain-sheltered, by the structure. The span of the structure is diameter of the disk. Now, if the structure contains a hole at the center of the disk, as in the case of Pantheon, the span is measured by using a second largest possible imaginary horizontal circular disk that is smaller than the first disk and completely encirceled by it. At least one diameter of the second disk have to be completely covered by the structure. The span of the structure is diameter of the second disk. Applying this method of measurement to Pantheon gives the previously stated result 34.2 m. The method works for many types of structures.

Note: almost all information in this timeline have uncertainty.

Longest Spans 1813–present

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 id:Bronze2  Value:magenta
 id:Messina-Paint      Value:yellowgreen
 id:GoldenGate-Paint   Value:orange
 id:Washington-Paint   Value:yellow
 id:Sognefjord1-Paint  Value:lavender
 id:Quebec-Paint       Value:tan2
 id:Forth-Paint        Value:teal
 id:Brooklyn-Paint     Value:pink
 id:NiagaraC-Paint     Value:yelloworange
 id:Roebling-Paint     Value:skyblue
 id:LewiQueen-Paint    Value:oceanblue
 id:Wheeling-Paint     Value:lavender
 id:Zaehringen-Paint   Value:green
 id:Menai-Paint        Value:lightpurple
 id:Union-Paint        Value:yellowgreen
 id:Luding-Paint       Value:red
 id:Blanche-Paint      Value:gray(0.93)
 id:Omega-Paint        Value:coral
 id:Carquinez-Paint    Value:drabgreen
 id:Rhine-Paint        Value:rgb(0.77,0.08,0.24)
 id:Ambassador-Paint   Value:brightgreen
 id:NiagaraF-Paint     Value:lightorange
 id:IronBridge-Paint   Value:yellow
 id:Tashigang-Paint    Value:orange
 id:Hunger-Paint       Value:brightgreen
 id:Saint-Paint        Value:tan2

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 from:1993  till:2009  color:Gold1           text:"5376m Ameralik powerline, Greenland"
 from:1975  till:1993  color:Sognefjord1-Paint text:"4850m Sognefjord 1 powerline, Norway"
 from:1957  till:1975  color:Messina-Paint   text:"3646m Messina powerline, Italy"
 from:1937  till:1957  color:GoldenGate-Paint         text:"1280m Golden Gate Bridge"
 from:1934  till:1937  color:Washington-Paint         text:"1067m George Washington Bridge, New York, USA"
 from:1920  till:1934  color:Gold2           text:"2580m Herzogstand Radio Antenna, Germany"
 from:1901  till:1920  color:Carquinez-Paint text:"1350m Carquinez Strait powerline, California, USA"
 from:1890  till:1901  color:Forth-Paint     text:"521m Forth Cantilever Bridge, Scotland, UK"
 from:1883  till:1890  color:Brooklyn-Paint  text:"486m Brooklyn Bridge, New York, USA"
 from:1869  till:1883  color:NiagaraC-Paint  text:"387m Niagara Clifton Bridge, USA–Canada"
 from:1866  till:1869  color:Roebling-Paint  text:"322m Roebling Suspension Bridge, USA"
 from:1864  till:1866  color:LewiQueen-Paint text:"317m Lewiston-Queenston Ruin, USA–Canada"
 from:1851  till:1864  color:LewiQueen-Paint text:"317m Lewiston-Queenston Bridge, USA–Canada"
 from:1849  till:1851  color:Wheeling-Paint  text:"308m Wheeling Suspension Bridge, West Virginia, USA"
 from:1834  till:1849  color:Zaehringen-Paint         text:"271m Zaehringen Bridge, Switzerland"
 from:1826  till:1834  color:Menai-Paint     text:"176m Menai Suspension Bridge, Wales, UK"
 from:1813  till:1826  color:IronBridge-Paint    text:"137m Iron Bridge, Tibet"
 width:225
 bar:Silver  align:center  shift:(0,0)  mark:(line,white)
 from:1993  till:2009  color:Sognefjord1-Paint text:"4850m Sognefjord 1 powerline, Norway"
 from:1975  till:1993  color:Messina-Paint   text:"3646m Messina powerline, Italy"
 from:1971  till:1975  color:Omega-Paint     text:"3500m Omega antenna, Norway"
 from:1962  till:1971  color:Blanche-Paint   text:"2831m Blanche Tramway, France"
 from:1958  till:1962  color:Silver2         text:"3248m Kootenay powerline, Canada"
 from:1957  till:1958  color:Silver1         text:"1782m Bosporus powerline, Turkey"
 from:1937  till:1957  color:Washington-Paint        text:"1067m George Washington Bridge, New York, USA"
 from:1934  till:1937  color:Rhine-Paint     text:"570m Rhine River powerline, Germany"
 from:1931  till:1934  color:Washington-Paint       text:"1067m George Washington Bridge, New York, USA"
 from:1930  till:1931  color:Rhine-Paint     text:"570m Rhine River powerline, Germany"
 from:1920  till:1930  color:Carquinez-Paint text:"1350m Carquinez Strait powerline, California, USA"
 from:1917  till:1920  color:Quebec-Paint   text:"549m Quebec Cantilever Bridge, Canada"
 from:1901  till:1917  color:Forth-Paint     text:"521m Forth Cantilever Bridge, Scotland, UK"
 from:1890  till:1901  color:Forth-Paint     text:"521m Forth Cantilever Bridge, second span"
 from:1889  till:1890  color:NiagaraC-Paint  shift:(0,9)  text:"387m Second Falls View Bridge, USA–Canada"
 at:1889               color:Roebling-Paint  text:"322m Roebling Suspension Bridge, USA"
 from:1883  till:1889  color:NiagaraC-Paint  text:"387m Niagara Clifton Bridge, USA–Canada"
 from:1869  till:1883  color:Roebling-Paint  text:"322m Roebling Suspension Bridge, USA"
 from:1866  till:1869  color:LewiQueen-Paint text:"317m Lewiston-Queenston Ruin, USA–Canada"
 from:1851  till:1866  color:Wheeling-Paint  text:"308m Wheeling Suspension Bridge, West Virginia, USA"
 from:1849  till:1851  color:Zaehringen-Paint      text:"271m Zaehringen Bridge, Switzerland"
 from:1848  till:1849  color:NiagaraF-Paint  shift:(0,-5)  text:"234m Niagara Falls Bridge, USA–Canada"
 from:1845  till:1848  color:Hunger-Paint    text:"206m Hungerford Bridge, London, UK"
 from:1836  till:1845  color:Saint-Paint     text:"200m Port-Sainte-Marie Bridge, France"
 from:1835  till:1836  color:Menai-Paint     shift:(0,-4) text:"176m Menai Suspension Bridge, UK"
 from:1834  till:1835  color:Saint-Paint     shift:(0,-4) text:"200m Port-Sainte-Marie Bridge, France"
 from:1826  till:1834  color:IronBridge-Paint    text:"137m Iron Bridge, Tibet"
 from:1820  till:1826  color:Union-Paint     text:"137m Union Bridge, England-Scotland, UK"
 at:1816               color:Silver1         text:"120m Philadelphia Footbridge, Pennsylvania, USA"
 from:1813  till:1820  color:Luding-Paint shift:(0,9)    text:"104m Luding Bridge, China"
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 bar:Bronze  mark:(line,white)  align:center  shift:(0,0)
 at:2009               color:Bronze1  shift:(0,10) text:"4520m Sognefjord 2 powerline, Norway"
 from:2008  till:2009  color:Bronze2 text:"3019m Peak 2 Peak Gondola, Canada"
  1. Here the HORIZONTAL distance of 3019m should be indicated, not the straight line of 3024m
 from:2002  till:2008  color:Blanche-Paint  text:"2831m Blanche Tramway, France"
 from:1994  till:2002  color:Omega-Paint    text:"3500m Omega antenna, Norway"
 from:1993  till:1994  color:Messina-Paint   text:"3646m Messina powerline, Italy"
 from:1975  till:1993  color:Omega-Paint    text:"3500m Omega antenna, Norway"
 from:1971  till:1975  color:Blanche-Paint  text:"2831m Blanche Tramway, France"
 from:1962  till:1971  color:Bronze1        text:"2357m Chusi powerline,Japan"
 from:1958  till:1962  color:Blanche-Paint  text:"2831m Blanche Tramway, France"
 from:1957  till:1958  color:GoldenGate-Paint       text:"1280m Golden Gate Bridge, USA"
 from:1937  till:1957  color:Rhine-Paint    text:"570m Rhine River powerline, Germany"
 from:1934  till:1937  color:Ambassador-Paint        text:"564m Ambassador Bridge, USA–Canada"
 from:1931  till:1934  color:Rhine-Paint    text:"570m Rhine River powerline, Germany"
 from:1930  till:1931  color:Ambassador-Paint        text:"564m Ambassador Bridge, USA–Canada"
 from:1926  till:1930  color:Rhine-Paint    text:"570m Rhine River powerline, Germany"
 from:1920  till:1926  color:Quebec-Paint   text:"549m Quebec Cantilever Bridge, Canada"
 from:1917  till:1920  color:Forth-Paint     text:"521m Forth Cantilever Bridge, Scotland, UK"
 from:1901  till:1917  color:Forth-Paint    text:"521m Forth Cantilever Bridge, second span"
 from:1890  till:1901  color:Brooklyn-Paint text:"486m Brooklyn Bridge, New York, USA"
 at:1889               color:LewiQueen-Paint       text:"317m Lewiston-Queenston Ruin, USA–Canada"
 from:1883  till:1890  color:Roebling-Paint text:"322m Roebling Suspension Bridge, USA"
 from:1869  till:1883  color:LewiQueen-Paint       text:"317m Lewiston-Queenston Ruin, USA–Canada"
 from:1866  till:1869  color:Wheeling-Paint text:"308m Wheeling Suspension Bridge, West Virginia, USA"
 from:1851  till:1866  color:Zaehringen-Paint       text:"271m Zaehringen Bridge, Switzerland"
 from:1849  till:1851  color:NiagaraF-Paint text:"234m Niagara Falls Bridge, USA–Canada"
 from:1848  till:1849  color:Hunger-Paint  shift:(0,-5)   text:"206m Hungerford Bridge, London, UK"
 from:1845  till:1848  color:Saint-Paint     text:"200m Port-Sainte-Marie Bridge, France"
 from:1839  till:1845  color:Bronze1         text:"198m La Roche-Bernard Bridge, France"
  1. from:1839 till:1845 color:Bronze1 text:"190m Pont Charles-Albert, France"
 from:1836  till:1839  color:Menai-Paint     text:"176m Menai Suspension Bridge, Wales, UK"
 from:1835  till:1836  color:IronBridge-Paint  shift:(0,-4)  text:"137m Iron Bridge, Tibet"
 from:1834  till:1835  color:Menai-Paint    shift:(0,-4)  text:"176m Menai Suspension Bridge, Wales, UK"
 from:1826  till:1834  color:Union-Paint    text:"137m Union Bridge, England-Scotland, UK"
 from:1820  till:1826  color:Luding-Paint   text:"104m Luding Bridge, China"
 at:1816               color:Luding-Paint   text:"104m Luding Bridge, China"
 from:1813  till:1820  color:Bronze2 shift:(0,9)       text:"103m Colossus Bridge, Pennsylvania, USA"

Longest Spans 62 BC–1813

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 id:IronBridge-Paint   Value:yellow
 id:Castel-Paint       Value:tan2
 id:PontDiable-Paint   Value:teal
 id:Zhauzhou-Paint     Value:pink
 id:Pantheon-Paint     Value:yelloworange
 id:Trajan-Paint       Value:skyblue
 id:Fabricius-Paint    Value:oceanblue
 id:Apurimac-Paint     Value:lavender
 id:PuenteDiablo-Paint Value:green
 id:Severan-Paint      Value:lightpurple
 id:Luding-Paint       Value:red
 id:Malabadi-Paint     Value:gray(0.9)
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 id:Augusto-Paint        Value:drabgreen
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 bar:Gold  mark:(line,white)  align:center shift:(0,0)
 from:1430 till:1813   color:IronBridge-Paint    text:"137m Iron Bridge, Tibet"
 from:1416 till:1430   color:Castel-Paint    text:"48m Castelvecchio Bridge, Italy"
 from:1377 till:1416   color:Gold2           text:"72m Trezzo sull'Adda Bridge, Italy"
 from:1356 till:1377   color:Castel-Paint    text:"48m Castelvecchio Bridge, Italy"
 from:1341 till:1356   color:PontDiable-Paint         text:"45m Pont du Diable, France"
 from:1147 till:1341   color:Malabadi-Paint  text:"38m Malabadi Bridge, Turkey"
 from:825  till:1147   color:Zhauzhou-Paint  text:"37m Zhaozhou Bridge, China"
 from:675  till:825    color:Gold1           text:"63m Maya Bridge at Yaxchilan, Mexico"
 from:605  till:675    color:Zhauzhou-Paint  text:"37m Zhaozhou Bridge, China"
 from:270  till:605    color:Pantheon-Paint  text:"34m Pantheon, Rome, Italy"
 from:105  till:270    color:Trajan-Paint    text:"52m Trajan's Bridge, Romania–Serbia"
 from:-27  till:105    color:Augusto-Paint   text:"32m Ponte di Augusto, Italy"
 from:-62  till:-27    color:Fabricius-Paint text:"24m Pons Fabricius, Italy"
 width:225
 bar:Silver  align:center  shift:(0,0)  mark:(line,white)
 from:1706 till:1813   color:Luding-Paint    text:"104m Luding Suspension Bridge, China"
 from:1464 till:1706   color:Tashigang-Paint text:"100m Tashigang Chain Bridge, Bhutan"
 from:1430 till:1464   color:Castel-Paint    text:"48m Castelvecchio Bridge, Italy"
 from:1416 till:1430   color:PontDiable-Paint       text:"45m Pont du Diable, France"
 from:1377 till:1416   color:Castel-Paint    text:"48m Castelvecchio Bridge, Italy"
 from:1356 till:1377   color:PontDiable-Paint       text:"45m Pont du Diable, France"
 from:1350 till:1356   color:Apurimac-Paint  text:"45m Apurimac bridge, Peru"
 from:1341 till:1350   color:Malabadi-Paint shift:(0,-5)  text:"38m Malabadi Bridge, Turkey"
 from:1147 till:1341   color:Zhauzhou-Paint      text:"37m Zhaozhou Bridge, China"
 from:825  till:1147   color:Pantheon-Paint  text:"34m Pantheon, Rome, Italy"
 from:675  till:825    color:Zhauzhou-Paint  text:"37m Zhaozhou Bridge, China"
 from:605  till:675    color:Pantheon-Paint  text:"34m Pantheon, Rome, Italy"
 from:270  till:605    color:Severan-Paint   text:"34m Severan Bridge, Turkey"
 from:105  till:270    color:Trajan-Paint    text:"52m Trajan's Bridge, other span"
 from:-25  till:105    color:Silver1         text:"31m Ponte Saint-Martin, Italy"
 from:-27  till:-25    color:Fabricius-Paint shift:(0,4) text:"24m Pons Fabricius, Italy"
 from:-62  till:-27    color:Fabricius-Paint text:"24m Pons Fabricius, second span"
 width:139
 bar:Bronze  mark:(line,white)  align:center  shift:(0,0)
 from:1706 till:1813   color:Tashigang-Paint text:"100m Tashigang Chain Bridge, Bhutan"
 from:1464 till:1706   color:Bronze1         text:"76m Phuntsholing Chain Bridge, Tibet"
 from:1430 till:1464   color:PontDiable-Paint       text:"45m Pont du Diable, France"
 from:1416 till:1430   color:Apurimac-Paint  text:"45m Apurimac bridge, Peru"
 from:1377 till:1416   color:PontDiable-Paint       text:"45m Pont du Diable, France"
 from:1356 till:1377   color:Apurimac-Paint  text:"45m Apurimac bridge, Peru"
 from:1350 till:1356   color:Malabadi-Paint  text:"38m Malabadi Bridge, Turkey"
 from:1341 till:1350   color:Zhauzhou-Paint  shift:(0,-5) text:"37m Zhaozhou Bridge, China"
 from:1283 till:1341   color:PuenteDiablo-Paint shift:(0,-4)      text:"37m Puente del Diablo, Spain"
 from:1150 till:1283   color:Bronze2     text:"35m Ponte do Porto, Portugal"
 from:1147 till:1150   color:Pantheon-Paint  text:"34m Pantheon, Rome, Italy"
 from:825  till:1147   color:Severan-Paint   text:"34m Severan Bridge, Turkey"
 from:675  till:825    color:Pantheon-Paint  text:"34m Pantheon, Rome, Italy"
 from:605  till:675    color:Severan-Paint   text:"34m Severan Bridge, Turkey"
 from:270  till:605    color:Augusto-Paint   text:"32m Ponte di Augusto, Italy"
 from:105  till:270    color:Trajan-Paint    text:"52m Trajan's Bridge, other span"
 from:-25  till:105    color:Fabricius-Paint text:"24m Pons Fabricius, Italy"
 from:-27  till:-25    color:Fabricius-Paint shift:(0,4) text:"24m Pons Fabricius, second span"
 from:-62  till:-27    color:Bronze1         text:"Ponte di Pietra, Italy"

Known incorrect construction years

In the timeline above, some completion years are given which are known to be incorrect. The following guesses were used to generate the graphic, but should not be taken as definitive.

Incorrect year Structure
2009 Sognefjord 2 Span
1993 Ameralik Span
1975 Sognefjord 1 Span
1971 Omega transmitter Bratland
1930 Dismantling of Carquinez Strait Powerline Crossing because then Benicia–Martinez Railroad Bridge was built
1836 Rebuilding of Port-Sainte-Marie Bridge
1350 Apurimac bridge
675–825 Maya Bridge at Yaxchilan

See also

External links

  • http://www.bridgemeister.com/index.htm
  • http://en.structurae.de/index.cfm
  • Structurae
  • Port-Sainte-Marie Bridge http://www.bridgemeister.com/bridge.php?bid=1765
  • Philadelphia Footbridge http://www.bridgemeister.com/bridge.php?bid=20
  • http://www.bhutanstudies.org.bt/admin/pubFiles/Chakzampa.pdf Chakzam/Iron Bridge p78, Tashigang Bridge p94, Phuntsholing Bridge p69
  • pt:Ponte do Porto, http://en.structurae.de/structures/data/index.cfm?id=s0020363
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