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William A. Hammond

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William A. Hammond

William Alexander Hammond
W. A. Hammond, engraving by H. B. Hall
Born (1828-08-28)August 28, 1828
Annapolis, Maryland
Died

January 5, 1900(1900-01-05) (aged 71#REDIRECT

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Place of burial Arlington National Cemetery
Allegiance United States of America
Union
Service/branch U.S. Army Medical Corps
Years of service 1849–1860, 1861–1864
Rank Brigadier General
Battles/wars
Spouse(s)
  • Helen Nisbet (married 1849)
  • Esther T. Chapin (married 1886)
Other work

William Alexander Hammond (28 August 1828 – 5 January 1900) was an American military physician and neurologist. During the American Civil War he was the eleventh Surgeon General of the United States Army (1862–1864) and the founder of the Army Medical Museum (now the National Museum of Health and Medicine).[1]

He was the first American physician to devote himself entirely to neurology, the author of the first American treatise about neurology, and one of the founders of the American Neurological Association.[2][3][4]

Contents

  • Biography 1
    • Civil War 1.1
      • Surgeon General 1.1.1
      • Removal from office 1.1.2
    • Neurology 1.2
    • Spiritualism 1.3
  • Selected works 2
  • Eponymy 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Notes 6
  • External links 7

Biography

Born in Annapolis (Maryland), Hammond grew up in Harrisburg (Pennsylvania). He received his M.D. from New York University[5] at the age of 20.[3] After his internship and a few months in private practice he became assistant-surgeon in the American Army, serving from 1849 to 1860. He was first sent to New Mexico and took part in the Sioux Wars. While on sick leave, he visited military hospitals in Europe.[6] He conducted research over many years and the resulting paper was awarded a prize by the American Medical Association in 1857.[7] With a common interest in poisons acting on the nervous system (among them snake venom), he wrote a paper with Silas Weir Mitchell that was published in 1859.[8]

While serving at Fort Riley as medical director, Hammond also collected biological specimens.[9] In 1860 he accepted a chair of anatomy and physiology at the University of Maryland in Baltimore and left the army.

Civil War

When the American Civil War broke out Hammond spent some time at the Baltimore infirmary[10] then joined the army (without recognition of his past service) on 28 May 1861, a month a half after the beginning of the hostilities. Surgeon General Clement Finley soon transferred him to West Virginia under the command of General William Starke Rosecrans command "to lessen his visibility".[11] There Hammond met Jonathan Letterman. Hammond worked with Letterman and Rosecrans on the design of a new ambulance wagon.

The atmosphere in the upper levels of medical services was then one of internal strife and personal conflicts. Hammond—a tall and imposing young man[12]—was no man of intrigue, nor even, according to all accounts, a very flexible person. However, the situation offered him the possibility for advancement. When Finley, the 10th Surgeon General, was fired after an argument with Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, Abraham Lincoln, against Stanton's advice and the normal rules of promotion,[11][13] named the 34-year-old Hammond to succeed him with the rank of brigadier general. Hammond became Surgeon General of the Army on 25 April 1862, less than a year after rejoining the army.

Surgeon General

Hammond launched a number of reforms.[14] He raised the requirements for admission into the Army Medical Corps.[15] The number of hospitals was greatly increased and he paid close attention to aeration.[16] He created Satterlee Hospital (which had up to 4,500 beds in hundreds of tents).[17] Hospitals were ordered to maintain much more complete records. In Washington he founded the National Museum of Health and Medicine (then called Army Medical Museum)[18] and put John H. Brinton in charge.[19] Hammond proposed a permanent military medical corps, a permanent hospital for the military, and centralized issuance of medications.[20] He recommended that "the service age of recruits be fixed by law at twenty years".[15] He successfully transferred the responsibility for sanitary trains from private companies to the government and personally oversaw the building of the wagons. He promoted Letterman and supported his reforms on the front.[21] On his initiative, Letterman's ambulance system was thoroughly tested before being extended to the whole Union.[22][23] Mortality decreased significantly. Efficiency increased, as Hammond promoted people on the basis of competence, not rank or connections, and his initiatives were positive and timely.[24]

Removal from office

On 4 May 1863 Hammond banned the mercury compound calomel from army supplies, as he believed it to be neither safe nor effective (he was later proved correct). He thought it dangerous to make an already debilitated patient vomit.[25][26] A "Calomel Rebellion" ensued,[27] as many of his colleagues had no alternative treatments and resented the move as an infringement on their liberty of practice. Hammond's arrogant nature did not help him solve the problem,[28] and his relations with Secretary of War Stanton became strained. On 3 September 1863 he was sent on a protracted "inspection tour" to the South,[29] which effectively removed him from office. Joseph Barnes, a friend of Stanton's and his personal physician, became acting Surgeon General.[30]

Hammond demanded to be either reinstated or court-martialed. A court-martial found him guilty of "irregularities" in the purchase of medical furniture (Stanton "used false data").[31][32] Hammond was dismissed on 18 August 1864.[9][29]

Neurology

With the help of friends Hammond established himself in New York City.[33] He became professor of nervous and mental diseases at Bellevue Hospital in 1867 and at the New York University in 1874. He served on the faculty of the University of Vermont at Burlington[34] and was co-founder and faculty member of the Post Graduate Medical School of New York.[9] In the 1870s, he limited his practice to possible cases of nervous or mental diseases, the first American physician to do so.[35] He conducted early experiments on the use of lithium for the treatment of mania.[36]

In 1871 he published his best-known work, Treatise on diseases of the nervous system.[37] In early 1872 he traveled to California to visit his ailing friend Letterman.[38][39] In 1874 he founded, with Silas Weir Mitchell and many others, the American Neurological Association.[40] In 1878 "he was restored to the army [...] with the grade of brigadier general, without pay or allowances".[9][41]

Hammond was the author of many books and articles,[42] some of them published in a journal he had founded.[43] He was energetic, sceptical,[44] moderate,[45] a believer in freedom,[46] and a reformer. He enjoyed writing in his spare time, becoming a science journalist and a naturalist. He also wrote a short biography of Polydore Vergil.

In 1888 he returned to Washington, where he founded a hospital[47] for patients with nervous and mental diseases.[3] He died in Washington on 5 January 1900 of heart failure and was buried with military honors at the Arlington National Cemetery.[48]

Hammond was married twice. On 3 July 1849, the day following his first commission as an assistant surgeon, he married Helen Nisbet. They had five children, two of whom died in infancy.[49] His second spouse was Esther Dyer (d. 1925), who is buried by his side.[48] Hammond co-authored a novel with his daughter Marquise Clara Lanza.

Spiritualism

Hammond was a critic of Spiritualism and attributed mediumship to suggestion and sleight of hand tricks. He explained the behavior of mediums as symptoms of hypnosis, hysteria, catalepsy and ectasy. His book The Physics and Physiology of Spiritualism (1871) is an early text on anomalistic psychology and was revised into a larger edition Spiritualism and Allied Causes and Conditions of Nervous Derangement (1876).[50] Hammond also argued that Spiritualism was itself a form of mental illness.[51]

Selected works

Medicine

  • (1856) The physiological effects of alcohol and tobacco upon the human system. Fort Riley (Google's edition is from the Physiological memoirs, Lippincott. 1868, p. 43. Hammond conducted the experiments on himself. Translated into German[52])
  • (1857) Experimental research relative to the nutritive value and physiological effects of albumen starch and gum, when singly and exclusively used as a food
  • (1861) On uraemic intoxication
  • (1863) Treatise on hygiene, with special reference to the military service (Surgeon General Hammond found no satisfying manual on hygiene. He wrote one. For some reason Hammond toned down a clearly racist passage in a last-minute note, adding it was premature to reserve military valor to the whites. {{Navbox

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  • (1864) Lectures on venereal diseases. Philadelphia (Google Books)
  • (1866) On wakefulness: With an introductory chapter on the physiology of sleep
  • (1868) Physiological memoirs. Lippincott
  • (1869) Sleep and its derangements. Lippincott
  • (1871a) Treatise on Diseases of the Nervous System
  • (1871b) Physics and physiology of spiritualism. New York: D. Appleton & Co. (Spiritualism, paranormal, hysteria, etc.)
  • (1879a) "The non-asylum treatment of the insane". Neurological contributions, p. 1, at Google Books 1 New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1879 (The insane should not automatically be sent to an asylum. A general practitioner is perfectly capable of handling many cases.)
  • (1879b) Fasting girls, on Project Gutenberg (Mystics who never eat; anorexia mirabilis, anorexia nervosa)
  • (1881) On certain conditions of nervous derangement, somnambulism—hypnotism—hysteria—hysteroid affections, etc. at Google Books. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 256 p.
  • (1883) A treatise on insanity in its medical relations (Internet Archive)
  • (1887) Sexual impotence in the male and female. Detroit. 1887[53]
  • (1899) "The American soldier and venereal diseases: A refutation of some of the statements of Mr. Edward Atkinson". NY Med. Jour. 70 (Atkinson, an anti-imperialist activist, had written on the situation of American soldiers in the Philippines[54]).

Translation

  • (1869) Moritz Meyer, Electricity in its relations to practical medicine, p. 1, at Google Books, translated from the 3rd German edition by W. A. Hammond, 2nd revised and corrected American edition. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 8vo, 1872, 506 p. (With notes and additions by Hammond. Translated from: Die Electricität in ihrer Anwendung auf pratische Medicin at Google Books, 3rd ed., Berlin: August Hirschwald, 1868)

Speech

  • (1880) "Our friends who have passed away". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 18(106), 15 March 1880 JSTOR 982825

Articles in the Popular Science Monthly

  • (1883)
  • (1884) " 
  • (1887) "  (Do you want your child to be a child prodigy?)
  • (1890) "  (Is it the business of the government to punish sin? Can the government improve society?)

History

  • (English) (Hammond wrote this short biography of Polydore Vergil in 1867)

Fiction

  • (1867) Robert Severne, his friends and his enemies. Internet Archive
  • (1884) Lal at Google Books, 466 p.
  • (1885) Doctor Grattan at Google Books. London: Richard Bentley & Son, 417 p.
  • (1885) Mr. Oldmixon
  • (1886) (with Clara Lanza) Tales of Eccentric Life at Google Books. D. Appleton & Co. (Written with his daughter)
  • (1886) A strong-minded woman, or Two years after
  • (1887) On the Susquehanna at Google Books, 412 p.

Eponymy

See also

References

  • Blustein, Bonnie Ellen (1991). Preserve your love for science: Life of William A. Hammond, American neurologist. New York: Cambridge University Press, 304 p. (Abbreviation: Blustein)
    Preview at Google Books. Includes an extensive list of works. See also Notes on sources, p. 266

  • Preview at Google Books
  • (Abbreviation: Phalen)
  • U.S. Army Medical Department. (Last Modified 05/16/09) "Part 6". The Evolution of Preventive Medicine in the United States Army, 1607–1939
  • Pilcher, James Evelyn, "XI. Brigadier general William Alexander Hammond, surgeon general of the United States Army, 1862–1864", in The surgeon generals of the army of the United States of America; a series of biographical sketches of the senior officers of the military medical service from the American revolution to the Philippine pacification, Carlisle. Pa., The Association of military surgeons, 1905, vi+114 pages. Mainly based on an account by General Smith, a friend and assistant of Hammond

Notes


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^
  2. ^ Freemon, PMID 11770195
  3. ^ a b c
  4. ^ G. E. Scott; J. F. Toole, "1860 — Neurology was there". Arch Neurol., 1998 Dec;55(12):1584-5. Abstract : PMID 9865808
  5. ^ Then known as the University of the City of New York
  6. ^ Hammond left 8 May and returned in early August. Blustein, p.49, p. 49, at Google Books
  7. ^ Hammond (1857)
  8. ^ July 1859 issue of The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. The paper is about corroval and vao, two substances to poison arrows. Brown-Séquard (1859) blamed the authors on a point: subsuming those poisons under the generic name of "curares": Journal de la physiologie de l'homme et des animaux. 2:707–709
  9. ^ a b c d Phalen
  10. ^ He cared for Massachusetts soldiers wounded in the Baltimore riot. Phalen
  11. ^ a b Greenwood (2003)
  12. ^ He was a tall man (1.88 meter, 6'2", which was rare at the time), weighed up to 250 pounds and kept his military bearing all his life.
  13. ^ "[Hammond had] served under two men, Charles Tripler and Jonathan Lettermen, [sic] who were sufficiently impressed with his abilities to serve later as his subordinates without apparent objection." Not all were like Letterman and Tripler.
  14. ^ See the account given in USAMD, especially from p. 104
  15. ^ a b The medical department of the United States Army, p. 90, at Google Books. The medical times and gazette, 1 (1863-01-24) (Review of the Surgeon General's report for the year ending 30 June 1862)
  16. ^ {{Navbox |name = Television drama series |title = Television drama series |state = autocollapse |listclass = hlist |group1 = By location

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  18. ^
  19. ^ John H. Brinton. Personal memoirs, p. 180, p. 180, at Google Books
  20. ^ But not for the Army of the Potomac, where Letterman was in charge. p. 84, p. 84, at Google Books
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  22. ^ An ambulance system, p. 10, at Google Books. American medical times 8 (1864-01-02)
  23. ^ "The ambulance corps was eventually taken from the quartermasters and placed under medical authority, but only after Hammond had accused [Stanton] of a disregard of the comfort of the wounded." {{Navbox |name = Television drama series |title = Television drama series |state = autocollapse |listclass = hlist |group1 = By location

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  24. ^ "There are numerous instances where positive orders were given not to buy of particular houses, whose prices, or the quality or measure of whose goods was found objectionable". Circular in behalf of the surgeon-general, 1863 , p. 11, at Google Books. American Medical Times 8 (1864-01-02), p. 11
  25. ^ Tartar emetic was also banned: Caring for the Men
  26. ^ {{Navbox |name = Television drama series |title = Television drama series |state = autocollapse |listclass = hlist |group1 = By location

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    • [[Procedural drama|P#REDIRECT
  27. ^ For a short and lively account of this episode: Jose Llinas, "Only victim of the Calomel Rebellion". Gainesville Sun. 5 June 1987, p. 11. Or this excerpt from Steve Herman's book: Lieutenant Colonel Samuel Cohen: Call Sign Band-Aid Six. p. 169-172, p. 169, at Google Books
  28. ^ An assistant-surgeon who had seen Hammond inspect his hospital described him as "arrogant and pompous". Freemon, who recounts the incident ({{Navbox |name = Television drama series |title = Television drama series |state = autocollapse |listclass = hlist |group1 = By location

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    • [[Procedural drama|P#REDIRECT p. 143, p. 143, at Google Books), also points to an occasion when Hammond could say: "I was then an assistant surgeon of the army, and rather more puffed up than I am now". (Our friends who have passed awayHammond, )
  29. ^ a b Typewritten Army record, reproduced in {{Navbox |name = Television drama series |title = Television drama series |state = autocollapse |listclass = hlist |group1 = By location

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    • [[Procedural drama|P#REDIRECT Gangrene and glory, p. 162 , p. 162, at Google Books
  30. ^ {{Navbox |name = Television drama series |title = Television drama series |state = autocollapse |listclass = hlist |group1 = By location

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  31. ^ Steve Herman, Lieutenant Colonel Samuel Cohen: Call Sign Band-Aid Six. p. 171, p. 171, at Google Books
  32. ^
  33. ^ "Hammond found himself in straitened circumstances from the expense of his trial." {{Navbox |name = Television drama series |title = Television drama series |state = autocollapse |listclass = hlist |group1 = By location

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  34. ^ Summer sessions. Hammond worked for free. Blustein, p. 98, p. 98, at Google Books
  35. ^ Freemon, Dec. 2001, PMID 11770195
  36. ^ Hammond, A Treatise on diseases of the nervous system, p. 381, at WHO, p. 516 : "it is difficult to determine in retrospect whether it was the lithium or the bromide that was the critical agent."
  37. ^ Translated into French by Frédéric Labadie-Lagrave (Traité des maladies du système nerveux...). Translated into Spanish and Italian: Blustein, p. 280, p. 280, at Google Books
  38. ^ Greenwood (2003). Letterman died on 15 March 1872.
  39. ^ Bennett A. Clements, Memoir of Jonathan Letterman, p. 24, at Google Books, 1883
  40. ^ Official site of the ANA:
  41. ^ The bill authorizing the president to reinstate Hammond "was passed by the house unanimously, and by the senate with but one dissenting vote". Appletons' cyclopaedia of American biography, vol. 3, p.69, p. 69, at Google Books
  42. ^ The list of his articles in scientific journals given by Blustein, p. 271, p. 271, at Google Books extends over nine pages with more than twenty articles per page (translations included)
  43. ^ Quarterly journal of psychological medicine and medical jurisprudence
  44. ^ 1871b; 1879b
  45. ^ 1887Popular Science Monthly
  46. ^ 1879a; 1890Popular Science Monthly
  47. ^ Called at the time a sanatorium
  48. ^ a b Section 1, grave 465 :
  49. ^
  50. ^ Ann Braude. (2001). Radical Spirits: Spiritualism and Women's Rights in Nineteenth-Century America. Indiana University Press. p. 158
  51. ^ Eric Caplan. (2001). Mind Games: American Culture and the Birth of Psychotherapy. University of California Press. p. 187
  52. ^ Archiv des Vereins für Gemeinschaftliche Arbeiten zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Heilkunde. 3 1858 p. 590, p. 590, at Google Books.
  53. ^ French translation : L'impuissance sexuelle chez l'homme et la femme, Paris: Lecrosnier & Babé, 1890
  54. ^ See review no. 67
  55. ^
  56. ^
  57. ^ John Xantus de Vesey met Hammond at Fort Riley and was assistant-surgeon there
  58. ^ Hammond and Xantus de Vesey were not the only "surgeons-ornithologists": Hume, Edgar Erskine. Ornithologists of the United States Army Medical Corps: Thirty-six biographies. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press. 1942. 583 p.

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