World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Winnowing

Article Id: WHEBN0000113079
Reproduction Date:

Title: Winnowing  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Post-harvest losses (grains), Threshing floor, Chaff, Husk, List of Chinese inventions
Collection: Agricultural Terminology, Separation Processes
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Winnowing

Rice winnowing, Uttarakhand, India
Use of winnowing forks

Wind winnowing is an agricultural method developed by ancient cultures for separating grain from chaff. It is also used to remove weevils or other pests from stored grain. Threshing, the loosening of grain or seeds from the husks and straw, is the step in the chaff-removal process that comes before winnowing.

In its simplest form it involves throwing the mixture into the air so that the wind blows away the lighter chaff, while the heavier grains fall back down for recovery. Techniques included using a winnowing fan (a shaped basket shaken to raise the chaff) or using a tool (a winnowing fork or shovel) on a pile of harvested grain.

Winnowing can also describe the natural removal of fine material from a coarser sediment by wind or flowing water, analogous to the agricultural separation of wheat from chaff.

Contents

  • In Greek culture 1
  • In China 2
  • In the Old Testament 3
  • In the New Testament 4
  • In Europe 5
  • In the United States 6
  • Mechanization of the process 7
  • In sedimentology 8
  • Gallery 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11

In Greek culture

The winnowing-fan (λίκνον [líknon], also meaning a "cradle") featured in the rites accorded Dionysus and in the Eleusinian Mysteries: "it was a simple agricultural implement taken over and mysticised by the religion of Dionysus," Jane Ellen Harrison remarked.[1] Dionysus Liknites ("Dionysus of the winnowing fan") was wakened by the Dionysian women, in this instance called Thyiades, in a cave on Parnassus high above Delphi; the winnowing-fan links the god connected with the mystery religions to the agricultural cycle, but mortal Greek babies too were laid in a winnowing-fan.[2] In Callimachus' Hymn to Zeus, Adrasteia lays the infant Zeus in a golden líknon, her goat suckles him and he is given honey.

In the Odyssey, the dead oracle Teiresias tells Odysseus to walk away from Ithaca with an oar until a wayfarer tells him it is a winnowing fan (i.e., until Odysseus has come so far from the sea that people don't recognize oars), and there to build a shrine to Poseidon.

In China

Chinese rotary fan winnowing machine, from the Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedia (1637) by Song Yingxing

In Ancient China the method was improved by mechanisation with the development of the rotary winnowing fan, which used a cranked fan to produce the airstream.[3] This was featured in Wang Zhen's book the Nong Shu of 1313 AD.

In the Old Testament

In the Old Testament the word winnow is used in several verses in different books in the New International Version while other versions of the bible translate the action as "fan", "throw" or the separating tool as "pitchfork", "shovel", "winnowing fan", or "winnowing instrument".

Ruth 3:2 "Now Boaz, with whose women you have worked, is a relative of ours. Tonight he will be winnowing barley on the threshing floor."

Proverbs 20:8 "When a king sits on his throne to judge, he winnows out all evil with his eyes."

Proverbs 20:26 "A wise king winnows out the wicked; he drives the threshing wheel over them."

Isaiah 41:16 "You will winnow them, the wind will pick them up, and a gale will blow them away. But you will rejoice in the Lord and glory in the Holy One of Israel."

Jeremiah 4:11 "At that time this people and Jerusalem will be told, “A scorching wind from the barren heights in the desert blows toward my people, but not to winnow or cleanse;"

Jeremiah 15:7 "I will winnow them with a winnowing fork at the city gates of the land. I will bring bereavement and destruction on my people, for they have not changed their ways."

Jeremiah 51:2 "I will send foreigners to Babylon to winnow her and to devastate her land; they will oppose her on every side in the day of her disaster."

In the New Testament

In Matthew 3:12, a sentence introduces the separation of wheat and chaff (good and bad) by "His winnowing fan is in his hand" (American Standard Bible and New American Bible translation). The New International Version, the New Revised Standard Version and the New American Standard Version translate the term as "winnowing fork."

In Europe

Le vanneur (The Winnower) by Jean-François Millet, a 19th-century depiction of winnowing by fan

In Saxon settlements such as one identified in Northumberland as Bede's Ad Gefrin [4] (now called Yeavering) the buildings were shown by an excavator's reconstruction to have opposed entries. In barns a draught created by the use of these opposed doorways was used in winnowing.[5]

The technique developed by the Chinese was not adopted in Europe until the 18th century, when winnowing machines used a 'sail fan'.[6] The rotary winnowing fan was exported to Europe, brought there by Dutch sailors between 1700 and 1720. Apparently they had obtained them from the Dutch settlement of Batavia in Java, Dutch East Indies. The Swedes imported some from south China at about the same time and Jesuits had taken several to France from China by 1720. Until the beginning of the 18th century, no rotary winnowing fans existed in the West.[7]

In the United States

The development of the winnowing barn allowed rice plantations in South Carolina to increase their yields dramatically.

Mechanization of the process

In 1737 Andrew Rodger, a farmer on the estate of Cavers in Roxburghshire, developed a winnowing machine for corn, called a 'Fanner'. These were successful and the family sold them throughout Scotland for many years. Some Scottish Presbyterian ministers saw the fanners as sins against God, for wind was a thing specially made by him and an artificial wind was a daring and impious attempt to usurp what belonged to God alone.[8] As the Industrial Revolution, the winnowing process was mechanized by the invention of additional winnowing machines, such as fanning mills.

In sedimentology

Winnowing can also describe the natural removal of fine material from a coarser sediment by wind or flowing water, analogous to the agricultural separation of wheat from chaff. Once a sediment has been deposited, subsequent changes in the speed or direction of wind or water flowing over it can agitate the grains in the sediment and allow the preferential removal of the finer grains. This action can improve the sorting and increase the mean grain size of a sediment after it has been deposited.[9]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Harrison, Prolegomean to the Study of Greek Religion, 3rd ed. (1922:159).
  2. ^ Karl Kerenyi, Dionysus: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life (1976:44).
  3. ^ The Question of the Transmission of the Rotary Winnowing Fan from China to Europe: Some New Findings, Hans Ulrich Vogel, 8th International Conference on the History of Science in China
  4. ^ Münzenberg, Hessen. Chapel and Palas (G.Binding, Burg Münzenberg, 1962)
  5. ^ M.W.Thompson, The Rise of the Castle, (Cambridge University Press, 1991), 5–6.
  6. ^ Broadcasting and winnowing, Antique Farm Tools
  7. ^ Robert Temple, The Genius of China, p. 24
  8. ^ Chambers, Robert (1885). Domestic Annals of Scotland. Edinburgh : W & R Chambers. p. 397.
  9. ^ Compton, R. R., 1962, Manual of field geology, John Wiley & Sons, 378 p.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.