World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front

Article Id: WHEBN0010459444
Reproduction Date:

Title: Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Rhodesia, Zimbabwe, Canaan Banana, Ian Smith, Lancaster House Agreement, Patriotic Front, Elections in Zimbabwe, Zimbabwean parliamentary election, 2005, April 2005, Witness Mangwende
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front

This article is about the ruling party of Zimbabwe, led by Robert Mugabe. For the political formation during the period 1963-1980, see ZANU. For the political party led by Ndabaningi Sithole and Wilson Nkumbula, see ZANU-Ndonga.

Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front
Leader Robert Mugabe
Founded 22 December 1987
Ideology African nationalism
Left-wing nationalism
Black nationalism
Colours Black, red, yellow, green
House of Assembly Template:Infobox political party/seats
Senate Template:Infobox political party/seats
Pan-African Parliament Template:Infobox political party/seats
Party flag
Politics of Zimbabwe
Political parties

The Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF) has been the ruling party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), and then as President from 1988 after merger with the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) and retaining the name ZANU-PF. In the 2008 parliamentary election the ZANU-PF lost sole control of parliament for the first time in party history, brokering a difficult power-sharing deal with the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC).

Zimbabwe African National Union

ZANU was founded by Ndabaningi Sithole, Henry Hamadziripi, Mukudzei Midzi, Herbert Chitepo, Edgar Tekere and Leopold Takawira at the house of former Defence Minister Enos Nkala in Highfield in August 1963.[1] The minority Ndau followed Sithole into the moderate Zanu (Ndonga) party (known later as ZANU Mwenje), who renounced violent struggle, while the majority Shona followed Mugabe's ZANU with a more militant agenda.

During the 1980 independence elections, ZANU allied itself with ZAP in the Patriotic Front (PF), the two parties adopting the names ZANU-PF and PF-ZAPU respectively, but they split after achieving majority rule.

In December 1987, after five years of low-level civil war termed Gukurahundi, the opposition ZAPU, led by Joshua Nkomo, was absorbed through the unity accord into ZANU-PF,[2] in what was seen as a step towards a one-party state.

Patriotic Front (PF)

The Patriotic Front (PF) was originally formed in 1976 as a political and military alliance between ZAPU and ZANU during the war against white minority rule in Zimbabwe (then called Rhodesia). The Patriotic Front included ZAPU led by Joshua Nkomo operating mainly from Zambia, and ZANU (Zimbabwe National People's Union) led by Robert Mugabe and operated mainly from neighbouring Mozambique. Both movements contributed their respective military forces: ZAPU's military wing was known as Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA) and ZANU's guerrillas where known as Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA). The objective of the Patriotic Front was to overthrow the white minority regime of Ian Smith by means of political pressure and military force.[3]

Their common goal was achieved in 1980 with the formal independence of Zimbabwe. During the 1980 election campaign the Patriotic Front alliance partners split into their respective factions and competed separately as ZANU-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) and Patriotic Front-ZAPU (ZAPU-PF). The election was won by Robert Mugabe and ZANU-PF, with Joshua Nkomo and his PF-ZAPU retaining a stronghold in the provinces of Matabeleland.[3]


Officially, ZANU-PF is socialist in ideology, and is modelled on communist parties in other countries. The party maintains a politburo.[4] However, the party had abandoned much of the egalitarian aspects associated with conventional Communist Party practice, instead choosing to pursue a mixed economy.

Land redistribution

Mugabe has since pursued a more populist approach on the issue of land redistribution: encouraging seizure of large farms—usually owned by members of the white minority—"for the benefit of landless black peasants." Critics of this policy argue that it is to maintain his grip on power as supporters of his government directly benefit from their personal gains of land redistribution far more than the landless population.[5]


Mugabe has also faced a major political challenge from the opposition Movement for Democratic Change. Mugabe won 56.0% at the presidential elections of 9 – 11 March 2002.

At the December 2004 five-year conference, Joyce Mujuru, a Zezeru Shona like Mugabe and whose late husband Solomon Mujuru was the retired head of the armed forces, was elevated to the post of vice-president of the party (the first woman to hold that office) at the expense of contender Emmerson Mnangagwa and his backers, Justice Minister Patrick Chinamasa and information minister Jonathan Moyo.[6]

The 2005 Zimbabwe parliamentary elections were held on 31 March 2005. The party won 59.6% of the popular vote and 78 out of 120 elected seats. Later that year, 26 November, it won 43 of 50 elected senators. The parliamentary election was disputed as being unfair. The leader of the opposition MDC party said, "We are deeply disturbed by the fraudulent activities we have unearthed", and various human rights groups reported that hundreds of thousands of "ghost voters" had appeared on the electoral roll of 5.8 million people.[7]

In the 2008 parliamentary election, the ZANU-PF lost its majority in parliament for the first time, holding 94 seats out of the expanded 210 seats, with Sokwanele stating that this figure would have been lower had it not been for gerrymandering, electoral fraud and widespread intimidation.[8]

In the 2008 presidential election, Morgan Tsvangirai, the MDC candidate, received the most votes but did not receive an absolute majority, thus a runoff was necessary. Initial results led to MDC-T claiming the majority necessary. However, ballots were recounted at a National Command Centre over a period of several days without the presence of independent observers. The election process that followed was marred by more violence against and intimidation of voters and party workers. Morgan Tsvangirai initially stated he intended to contest the second round but pulled out of the run off saying a free and fair election was impossible in the current climate. The elections were held on 27 June with a single candidate, Robert Mugabe, who was reelected.

Many blame ZANU-PF for neglecting to deal with Zimbabwe's problem with the mounting 2008 Zimbabwean cholera outbreak, which by the start of December 2008 had already killed between 500 and 3,000 people.[9]

SADC facilitation of government power-sharing agreement, 15 September 2008

Former President of South Africa Thabo Mbeki facilitated, under the auspices of Southern African Development Community (SADC), a Zimbabwean Government of Power-Sharing between ZANU-PF, the Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai and the Movement for Democratic Change – Mutambara.

Split of re-organized ZAPU

In November 2008, a group of former ZAPU members, most of them hailing from Bulawayo, left ZANU-PF and re-established the ZAPU party:

  1. Former ZAPU members and Ndebele being left out in the discussions between the two Movement for Democratic Change formations and ZANU-PF.
  2. Unhappiness with the sacking of Dumiso Dabengwa from the politburo because he supported Simba Makoni in the 2008 presidential election.
  3. Lack of development in Bulawayo province, including the lack of progress on the Matabeleland Zambezi Water Project.
  4. ZAPU cadres not considered for burial at the national heroes acre
  5. The issue of succession.[10]

External links


Template:Former Liberation Movements

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.