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An Investigation of Tungdunge Mundhum, A Kirat Mythology

By Subba, Nawa Raj, Dr.

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Book Id: WPLBN0100749962
Format Type: PDF eBook:
File Size: 0.1 MB
Reproduction Date: 9/18/2023

Title: An Investigation of Tungdunge Mundhum, A Kirat Mythology  
Author: Subba, Nawa Raj, Dr.
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Social Sciences, Anthropological Study
Collections: Authors Community, Folklore
Publication Date:
Publisher: Hamro Idea, Biratnagar, Nepal
Member Page: Nawa Raj Subba


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Nawa Raj Subba, B. D. (2023). An Investigation of Tungdunge Mundhum, A Kirat Mythology. Retrieved from

Tungdunge Mundhum is a cultural heritage of the Kirat Limbu community. It is an ancestral worship in the Kirat community, especially of the Samba clan. It can be called a mythology. This study aims to look scientifically at the knowledge, values , and beliefs hidden within the civilization. In this book, there is a task to find the story in the historical background. Here, the narrative is analyzed based on evidence and theory. The description is brought to a logical conclusion on the theoretical ground of the socio-biological model. Tungdunge Mundhum, a cultural mythology, should not be limited to a tradition. Thus, an attempt has been made to understand it from an anthropological point of view through the study. A preliminary review of this research has been published as a booklet and article, which is found to be read with interest by the reader. This book is more detailed on the mythology belonging Kirat-Sen-Samba clan. History and genealogy indicate that the history of the Samba clan evolved with the Kirat-Sen-Samba lineage. This Mundhum is also found to be supportive of the historical facts. The study concentrated on that evidence. This research work will be helpful to the researcher as it has been analyzed and synthesized by various evidences. It includes an ethnographic base, genealogy, and different perspectives of Kirat Limbu communities.

This Mundhum is viewed by the Kirat Samba family and other Limbus from a cultural and religious point of view. No one dares to ask questions about the world, to be curious, and to do research. Therefore, the presented Mundhum has yet to be studied and analyzed from an anthropological point of view. In the twenty-first century, from a scientific point of view, it is necessary to study and research the knowledge of the medieval world and find out the crucial moment. This endeavor is an attempt to investigate the world scientifically, independent of the values and beliefs that support Mundhum's significance. This trend will pave the way for the scientific approach of scholars in the future. Such anthropological analysis will inform how ancient the Mundhum of Kirat Limbu is, what life philosophy it represents, how useful it is, and why it is functional. Through the study, there is scientific work to connect the primitive philosophy of life with the current philosophy of life. Therefore, the present study will establish the fact that the philosophy of life of Kirat Limbu is based on historical events.

Mundhum is a traditional knowledge of Kirat. It is considered a spiritual power. So, Mundhum represents and guides Kirat as a religious and cultural path. So this is their philosophy of life. They believe in Kirat Mundhum, like the Vedas of Arya. The Kirat Limbu community considers Mundhum as a religious belief and holy book. Mundhum is a long-established text passed down wisdom orally through centuries. The distinctive dialects of the many Kirat clans have given Mundhum its personality. Kirat Limbu refers to Mundhum as Mundhum and Rai as Mundum or Mudum. Like Kirat Sunuwar refers to Mundhum as "Mukdum," Kirat Yakkha refers to it as "Muntum." The name was owned by locality and ethnicity on its tongue and dialects, but in essence, it is common knowledge of the Kirats evidenced in phonetic similarities with the common meaning of this word. Scholars have defined Kirat Mundhum. In the Kirat Limbu language, 'Mum' means traveling, and 'Dhum' means being strong enough to display knowledge capable of going around and down (Chemjong, 1965; 2003a, 2003b, 2003c). According to historian Imansingh Chemjong, Mundhum is 'the power of great force' and 'verbally moving knowledge.’ He has explained the Vedas of Kirat to Mundhum. However, since Mundhum or Veda both mean knowledge, Kirat Mundhum is called the Veda of Kirat. There is also a linguistic effect in the coinage Mundhum. In the Kirat Limbu language, 'Mura' or 'Mu' means mouth or oral, and 'Thum' means strong enough. It shows the text's powerful verbal nature. However, Kirat Shamans such as Phedangba/ma, Samba, and Yeba believe Mundhum is the speech of God.

Table of Contents
An Investigation of Tungdunge Mundhum, A Kirat Mythology Copyright Preface Table of Contents Book Introduction Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Introduction of Mundhum 1.2 Types of Mundhum 1.3 Kirat Mundhum in written form 1.4 Introduction of Tungdunge Mundhum 1.5 Background of Tungdunge Mundhum 1.6 Samba Family Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1 Pre-Vedic Shiva Dharma 2.2 The Kashi dynasty's development. 2.3 The Kusan invasion of India 2.4 Sen dynasty Simangadh/ Simraungadh 2.5 Socio-biological Model 2.6 Varahakschetra and Kirat Relation 2.7 Varaha Kshetra and indigenous peoples 2.8 Tungdunge in Khajum Limbu Folktale 2.9 Tungdunge in Ninglekhu Limbu Folktale 2.10 Warum Hang Limbu Folktale 2.11 Tibetan folktale relating to Tungdunge 2.12 Hidden Mundhumian spirits 2.13 Sociobiological model 2.14 Genealogical Review 2.15 Kirat-Sen-Smba Historical Background Chapter 3 Statement of the Problem 3.1 Rituals without understanding true significance 3.2 Objective of the Study 3.3 Rationale of the Study 3.4 Limitations of the Study 3.5 Approach of Historiography Chapter 4 Methodology 4.1 Methods 4.2 Theoretical Interpretation Chapter 5 Findings 5.1 Demographic information 5.2 Tradition of Tungdunge Mundhum 5.3 Required items for the adoration of Tungdunge 5.4 Tungdunge Mundhum texts 5.5 Synopsis of the Mundhum 5.6 Samba Communities' Expression Chapter 6 Discussion 6.1 Tribals who worship nature and ancestors 6.2 Tungdunge and Dhangdhange 6.3 The Sociobiological framework adaptation 6.4 The Sen Dynasty Arrives in Limbuwan 6.5 Integration of the Sen dynasty into the Limbu community 6.6 Who exactly was Baraha Kokohamang? 6.7 Origin of the Samba Clan 6.8 Origin of Phyang sub-clan 6.9 The variation between oral and written Mundhum 6.10 Salt-water treaty (1774) 6.11 Archaeological pieces of evidence 6.12 Suryakund 6.13 Adibaraha Idol and Khajum Mundhum 6.14 Baraha Kshetra in 15 years Chapter 7 Conclusion Chapter 8. Recommendation References Appendices Appendix 1 Tungdunge Mundhum Texts Appendix 2 Phyang Samba Genealogy (Draft) Appendix 3 Interview and Discussion Check-List Appendix 4 Ling Thang Yak Original Image Appendix 5 Group photos About author and publications


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