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 Book Id: WPLBN0002097645 Subjects: Non-Fiction, Education, Smarandache Collections Collections: Literature, Education, Authors Community, Mathematics ► Abstract Description DetailsThe theory of loops (groups without associativity), though researched by several mathematicians has not found a sound expression, for books, be it research level or otherwise, solely dealing with the properties of loops are absent. This is in marked contrast with group theory where books are abundantly available for all levels: as graduate texts and as advanced research books....
 Book Id: WPLBN0002828550 Subjects: Non Fiction, Education, Bicodes Collections: Literature, Law, Education, Algebra, Authors Community, Mathematics ► Abstract Description DetailsThis book has four chapters. In chapter one we just recall the notion of RD codes, MRD codes, circulant rank codes and constant rank codes and describe their properties. In chapter two we introduce few new classes of codes and study some of their properties. In this chapter we introduce the notion of fuzzy RD codes and fuzzy RD bicodes. Rank distance m-codes are introduced in chapter three and the property of m-covering radius is analysed. Chapter four indicates some applications of these new classes of codes.... Excerpt DetailsDEFINITION 1.12: The ‘norm’ of a word v _ VN is defined as the ‘rank’ of v over GF(2) (By considering it as a circulant matrix over GF(2)). We denote the ‘norm’ of v by r(v). We just prove the following theorem. THEOREM 1.2: Suppose ____GF(2N) has the polynomial representation g(x) over GF(2) such that the gcd(g(x), xN +1) has degree N – k, where 0 _ k _ N. Then the ‘norm’ of the word generated by _ is ‘k’. ... Table of Contents DetailsPreface 5 Chapter One BASIC PROPERTIES OF RANK DISTANCE CODES 7 Chapter Two RANK DISTANCE BICODES AND THEIR PROPERTIES 25 Chapter Three RANK DISTANCE m-CODES 77 Chapter Four APPLICATIONS OF RANK DISTANCE m-CODES 131 FURTHER READING 133 INDEX 144 ABOUT THE AUTHORS 150...
 Book Id: WPLBN0002097109 Subjects: Non Fiction, Education, Smarandache Collections Collections: Math, Literature, Law, Education, Mathematics, Authors Community ► Abstract Description DetailsThe development of mathematics continues in a rapid rhythm, some unsolved problems are elucidated and simultaneously new open problems to be solved appear. 1. "Man is the measure of all things". Considering that mankind will last to infinite, is there a terminus point where this competition of development will end? And, if not, how far can science develop: even so to the infinite? That is . The answer, of course, can be negative, not being an end of development, but a period of stagnation or of small regression. And, if this end of development existed, would it be a (self) destruction? Do we wear the terms of selfdestruction in ourselves? (Does everything have an end, even the infinite? Of course, extremes meet.) I, with my intuitive mind, cannot imagine what this infinite space means (without a beginning, without an end), and its infinity I can explain to myself only by mAans of a special property of space, a kind of a curved line which obliges me to always come across the same point, something like Moebus Band, or Klein Bottle, which can be put up/down (!)...
 Date: 2013, Volume: 2 Book Id: WPLBN0002828222 Subjects: Non Fiction, Education, Super Vector Collections: Math, Literature, Education, Algebra, Authors Community, Mathematics ► Abstract Description DetailsIn this book authors for the first time introduce the notion of supermatrices of refined labels. Authors prove super row matrix of refined labels form a group under addition. However super row matrix of refined labels do not form a group under product; it only forms a semigroup under multiplication. In this book super column matrix of refined labels and m Å~ n matrix of refined labels are introduced and studied. We mainly study this to introduce to super vector space of refined labels using matrices.... Excerpt DetailsTHEOREM 1.1.1: Let S = {(a1 a2 a3 | a4 a5 | a6 a7 a8 a9 | … | an-1, an) | ai ∈ R; 1 ≤ i ≤ n} be the collection of all super row vectors with same type of partition, S is a group under addition. Infact S is an abelian group of infinite order under addition. The proof is direct and hence left as an exercise to the reader. If the field of reals R in Theorem 1.1.1 is replaced by Q the field of rationals or Z the integers or by the modulo integers Zn, n < ∞ still the conclusion of the theorem 1.1.1 is true. Further the same conclusion holds good if the partitions are changed. S contains only same type of partition. However in case of Zn, S becomes a finite commutative group....
 Book Id: WPLBN0002828454 Subjects: Non Fiction, Education, Algebra Collections: Math, Literature, Education, Algebra, Authors Community, Mathematics ► Abstract Description DetailsThis book has three chapters. In the first chapter the notion of n-vector spaces of type II are introduced. This chapter gives over 50 theorems. Chapter two introduces the notion of n-inner product vector spaces of type II, n-bilinear forms and n-linear functionals. The final chapter suggests over a hundred problems. It is important that the reader should be well versed with not only linear algebra but also n-linear algebras of type I.... Excerpt DetailsIn this chapter we for the first time introduce the notion of n-vector space of type II. These n-vector spaces of type II are different from the n-vector spaces of type I because the n-vector spaces of type I are defined over a field F where as the n-vector spaces of type II are defined over n-fields. Some properties enjoyed by n-vector spaces of type II cannot be enjoyed by n-vector spaces of type I. To this; we for the sake of completeness just recall the definition of n-fields in section one and n-vector spaces of type II are defined in section two and some important properties are enumerated.... Table of Contents DetailsPreface 5 Chapter One n-VECTOR SPACES OF TYPE II AND THEIR PROPERTIES 7 1.1 n-fields 7 1.2 n-vector Spaces of Type II 10 Chapter Two n-INNER PRODUCT SPACES OF TYPE II 161 Chapter Three SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 195 FURTHER READING 221 INDEX 225 ABOUT THE AUTHORS 229...
 Book Id: WPLBN0002097082 Subjects: Non Fiction, Education, Smarandache Collection Collections: Math, Literature, Education, Authors Community, Mathematics ► Abstract Description DetailsThe function named in the title of this book is originated from the e:riled Romanian mathematician Florentin Smaranda.che, who has significant contributions not only in mathematics, but also in li~ratuIe. He is the father of The Paradorut Literary Movement and is the author of many stories, novels, dramas, poems....
 Book Id: WPLBN0002097038 Subjects: Non Fiction, Education, Smarandache Collections Collections: Math, Literature, Education, Authors Community, Mathematics ► Abstract Description DetailsIn writing a book, one encounters and overcomes many obstacles. Not the least of which is the occasional case of writer’s block. This is especially true in mathematics where sometimes the answer is currently and may for all time be unknown. There is nothing worse than writing yourself into a corner where your only exit is to build a door by solving unsolved problems. In any case, it is my hope that you will read this volume and come away thinking that I have overcome enough of those obstacles to make the book worthwhile. As always, your comments and criticisms are welcome. Feel free to contact me using any of the addresses listed below, although e-mail is the preferred method....
 Book Id: WPLBN0002828092 Subjects: Non Fiction, Education, Super Interval Matrices Collections: Math, Literature, Education, Algebra, Authors Community, Mathematics ► Abstract Description DetailsIn this book authors for the first time introduce the notion of super interval matrices using the special intervals of the form [0, a], a belongs to Z+ ∪ {0} or Zn or Q+ ∪ {0} or R+ ∪ {0}.... Excerpt DetailsSUPER INTERVAL SEMILINEAR ALGEBRAS In this chapter we for the first time introduce the notion of semilinear algebra of super interval matrices over semifields of type I (super semilinear algebra of type I) and semilinear algebra of super interval matrices over interval semifields of type II (super semilinear algebra of type II) and study their properties and illustrate them with examples. DEFINITION 4.1: Let V be a semivector space of super interval matrices defined over the semifield S of type I. If on V we for every pair of elements x, y ∈ V; x . y is in V where ‘.’ is the product defined on V, then we call V a semilinear algebra of super interval matrices over the semifield S of type I. We will illustrate this situation by some examples. Example 4.1: Let V = {([0, a1] [0, a2] | [0, a3] [0, a4] | [0, a5] [0, a6] | [0,a7]) | ai ∪ Z+ ∪ {0}; 1 ≤ i ≤ 7} be a semivector space of super interval matrices defined over the semifield S = Z+ ∪ {0} of type I. Consider x = ([0, 5] [0, 3] | [0, 9] [0, 1] [0, 2] [0, 8] | [0, 6]) and y =([0, 1] [0, 2] | [0, 3] [0, 5] [0, 3] [0, 1] | [0, 5]) in V. We define the product ‘.’ on V as x.y =... Table of Contents DetailsCONTENTS Preface 5 Chapter One INTRODUCTION 7 Chapter Two INTERVAL SUPERMATRICES 9 Chapter Three SEMIRINGS AND SEMIVECTOR SPACES USING SUPER INTERVAL MATRICES 83 Chapter Four SUPER INTERVAL SEMILINEAR ALGEBRAS 137 Chapter Five SUPER FUZZY INTERVAL MATRICES 203 5.1 Super Fuzzy Interval Matrices 203 5.2 Special Fuzzy Linear Algebras Using Super Fuzzy Interval Matrices 246 Chapter Six APPLICATION OF SUPER INTERVAL MATRICES AND SET LINEAR ALGEBRAS BUILT USING SUPER INTERVAL MATRICES 255 Chapter Seven SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 257 FURTHER READING 281 INDEX 285 ABOUT THE AUTHORS 287...
 Book Id: WPLBN0002097123 Subjects: Non Fiction, Education, Smarandache Collections Collections: Math, Literature, Education, Authors Community, Mathematics ► Abstract Description DetailsPrima culegere de "Problemes avec et sans …problemes!" a aparut in Maroc in 1983. Am strans aceste proleme, aparute prill diverse reviste romanel;lti sau straine (printre care: "Gazeta Matematica", revista Ia care Ill-am format ca problemisi, "American Mathematical Monihly", "Crux Mathematicorum" (Canada), "E1emcllte del' Mathematik" (Elvetia), "Gaceta Matematica" (Spania), "Nieuw voor Archief" (Olanda), etc.) ori inedite intr-un al doilea volum....
 Book Id: WPLBN0002828472 Subjects: Non Fiction, Education, Algebra Collections: Math, Literature, Education, Algebra, Authors Community, Mathematics ► Abstract Description DetailsThis book has seven chapters. Chapter one provides several basic notions to make this book self-contained. Chapter two introduces neutrosophic groups and neutrosophic N-groups and gives several examples. The third chapter deals with neutrosophic semigroups and neutrosophic N-semigroups, giving several interesting results. Chapter four introduces neutrosophic loops and neutrosophic N-loops. Chapter five just introduces the concept of neutrosophic groupoids and neutrosophic Ngroupoids. Sixth chapter innovatively gives mixed neutrosophic structures and their duals. The final chapter gives problems for the interested reader to solve. Our main motivation is to attract more researchers towards algebra and its various applications.... Excerpt Details1.1 Groups, N-group and their basic Properties It is a well-known fact that groups are the only algebraic structures with a single binary operation that is mathematically so perfect that an introduction of a richer structure within it is impossible. Now we proceed on to define a group. DEFINITION 1.1.1: A non empty set of elements G is said to form a group if in G there is defined a binary operation, called the product and denoted by '•' such that ... Table of Contents DetailsPreface 5 Chapter One INTRODUCTION 1.1 Groups, N-group and their basic Properties 7 1.2 Semigroups and N-semigroups 11 1.3 Loops and N-loops 12 1.4 Groupoids and N-groupoids 25 1.5 Mixed N-algebraic Structures 32 Chapter Two NEUTROSOPHIC GROUPS AND NEUTROSOPHIC N-GROUPS 2.1 Neutrosophic Groups and their Properties 40 2.2 Neutrosophic Bigroups and their Properties 52 2.3 Neutrosophic N-groups and their Properties 68 Chapter Three NEUTROSOPHIC SEMIGROUPS AND THEIR GENERALIZATIONS 3.1 Neutrosophic Semigroups 81 3.2 Neutrosophic Bisemigroups and their Properties 88 3.3 Neutrosophic N-Semigroup 98 Chapter Four NEUTROSOPHIC LOOPS AND THEIR GENERALIZATIONS 4.1 Neutrosophic loops and their Properties 113 4.2 Neutrosophic Biloops 133 4.3 Neutrosophic N-loop 152 Chapter five NEUTROSOPHIC GROUPOIDS AND THEIR GENERALIZATIONS 5.1 Neutrosophic Groupoids 171 5.2 Neutrosophic Bigroupoids and their generalizations 182 Chapter Six MIXED NEUTROSOPHIC STRUCTURES 187 Chapter Seven PROBLEMS 195 REFERENCE 201 INDEX 207 ABOUT THE AUTHORS 219 ...
 Book Id: WPLBN0002097650 Subjects: Non-Fiction, Education, Smarandache Collections Collections: Technology, Literature, Education, Logic, Authors Community, Mathematics ► Abstract Excerpt DetailsThe study of bialgebraic structures started very recently. Till date there are no books solely dealing with bistructures. The study of bigroups was carried out in 1994-1996. Further research on bigroups and fuzzy bigroups was published in 1998. In the year 1999, bivector spaces was introduced. In 2001, concept of free De Morgan bisemigroups and bisemilattices was studied. It is said by Zoltan Esik that these bialgebraic structures like bigroupoids, bisemigroups, binear rings help in the construction of finite machines or finite automaton and semi automaton. The notion of non-associative bialgebraic structures was first introduced in the year 2002. The concept of bialgebraic structures which we define and study are slightly different from the bistructures using category theory of Girard's classical linear logic. We do not approach the bialgebraic structures using category theory or linear logic....
 Date: 2014, Volume 1 Book Id: WPLBN0003466725 Subjects: Non Fiction, Education, Mathematics Collections: Math, Literature, Education, Authors Community, Mathematics ► Abstract Description DetailsThis is a collection of puzzles requiring in most cases – high school math. The purpose is not necessarily to solve these problems, but to get you to think about different types of math puzzles. Many of the puzzles are introductions to different areas of math. Most of these puzzles can be done mentally. If you have to write, expect to write no more than a page. Pictures are useful.... Excerpt Details“There are three planes”, said Onko, “which take off simultaneously - from Bangalore, Athens, and New York.” “Each plane goes 500 km north, then 500 km east, then 500 km south, and then 500 km west.” “Which plane is closest to its starting point?”, said Onko with a smile.... Table of Contents DetailsPuzzles More puzzles Some more puzzles
 Book Id: WPLBN0002097644 Subjects: Non-Fiction, Education, Smarandache Collections Collections: Math, Literature, Education, Algebra, Authors Community, Mathematics ► Abstract Excerpt DetailsSmarandache notions, which can be undoubtedly characterized as interesting mathematics, has the capacity of being utilized to analyse, study and introduce, naturally, the concepts of several structures by means of extension or identification as a substructure. Several researchers around the world working on Smarandache notions have systematically carried out this study. This is the first book on the Smarandache algebraic structures that have two binary operations. Semirings are algebraic structures with two binary operations enjoying several properties and it is the most generalized structure — for all rings and fields are semirings. The study of this concept is very meagre except for a very few research papers. Now, when we study the Smarandache semirings (S-semiring), we make the richer structure of semifield to be contained in an S-semiring; and this S-semiring is of the first level. To have the second level of S-semirings, we need a still richer structure, viz. field to be a subset in a S-semiring. This is achieved by defining a new notion called the Smarandache mixed direct product. Likewise we also define the Smarandache semif...
 Book Id: WPLBN0002097136 Subjects: Non Fiction, Education, Smarandache Collections Collections: Math, Literature, Education, Authors Community, Mathematics ► Abstract Description DetailsThis book contains a group of Smarandache's theories and lessons on mathematics. It includes his famous "Smarandache Function" and how it is executed through with math....
 Book Id: WPLBN0002097121 Subjects: Non Fiction, Education, Smarandache Collections Collections: Technology, Literature, Education, Authors Community, Mathematics ► Abstract Description DetailsDuring the five years since publishing, we have obtained many new results related to the Smarandache problems. We are happy to have the opportunity to present them in this book for the enjoyment of a wider audience of readers. The problems in Chapter two have also been solved and published separately by the authors, but it makes sense to collate them here so that they can be better seen in perspective as a whole, particularly in relation to the problems elucidated in Chapter one. Many of the problems, and more especially the techniques employed in their solution, have wider applicability than just the Smarandache problems, and so they should be of more general interest to other mathematicians, particularly both professional and amateur number theorists....
 Book Id: WPLBN0002096589 Subjects: Non Fiction, Education, Algebra Collections: Math, Literature, Education, Algebra, Authors Community, Mathematics ► Abstract Description DetailsThe main motivation and desire for writing this book, is the direct appreciation and attraction towards the Smarandache notions in general and Smarandache algebraic structures in particular. The Smarandache semigroups exhibit properties of both a group and a semigroup simultaneously. This book is a piece of work on Smarandache semigroups and assumes the reader to have a good background on group theory; we give some recollection about groups and some of its properties just for quick reference....
 Book Id: WPLBN0002828452 Subjects: Non Fiction, Education, Algebra Collections: Math, Literature, Education, Algebra, Authors Community, Mathematics ► Abstract Description DetailsThis book has four chapters. The first chapter just introduces n-group which is essential for the definition of n-vector spaces and n-linear algebras of type I. Chapter two gives the notion of n-vector spaces and several related results which are analogues of the classical linear algebra theorems. In case of n-vector spaces we can define several types of linear transformations. The applications of these algebraic structures are given in Chapter 3. Chapter four gives some problem to make the subject easily understandable.... Excerpt Detailsn-VECTOR SPACES OF TYPE I AND THEIR PROPERTIES In this chapter we introduce the notion of n-vector spaces and describe some of their important properties. Here we define the concept of n-vector spaces over a field which will be known as the type I n-vector spaces or n-vector spaces of type I. Several interesting properties about them are derived in this chapter. DEFINITION 2.1: A n-vector space or a n-linear space of type I (n 2)... Table of Contents DetailsPreface 5 Chapter One BASIC CONCEPTS 7 Chapter Two n-VECTOR SPACES OF TYPE I AND THEIR PROPERTIES 13 Chapter Three APPLICATIONS OF n-LINEAR ALGEBRA OF TYPE I 81 Chapter Four SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 103 FURTHER READING 111 INDEX 116 ABOUT THE AUTHORS 120...
 Book Id: WPLBN0002828499 Subjects: Non Fiction, Education, Mathematics Collections: Math, Literature, Education, Authors Community, Mathematics ► Abstract Description DetailsIn writing this book, the first problem I faced is to choose the contents of the book. Today the Smarandache Notions is so vast and diversified that it is indeed difficult to choose the materials. Then, I fixed on five topics, namely, Some Smarandache Sequences, Smarandache Determinant Sequences, the Smarandache Function and its generalizations, the Pseudo Smarandache Function and its generalizations, and Smarandache Number Related Triangles. Most of the results appeared before, but some results, particularyly in Chapter 5, are new. In writing this book, I took the freedom of including the more recent results, found by other researchers till 2009, to keep the expositions up to date. At the end of Chapter1, Chapter 3, Chapter4, and Chapter 5, some open problems are given in the form of conjectures and questions.... Table of Contents DetailsIntroduction 7-8 Chapter 1, Some Smarandache Sequences, 9-38 Chapter 2, Smarandache Determinant Sequences, 39-52 Chapter 3, The Smarandache Function, 53-88 Chapter 4, The Pseudo Smarandache Function, 89-168 Chapter 5, Smarandache Number Related Triangles, 169-192...
 Date: 2008, Volume 2 Book Id: WPLBN0100003043 Subjects: Arithmetic, Education, Non Fiction ► Abstract Description DetailsA completely new and unique method of multiplication where you can: 1.) Multiply positive numbers, get negative answers, and still achieve the correct positive result. 2.) Attach numbers to one another to bypass multiplication and addition steps. 3.) Choose one of many different paths to solve the same problem based on your own individual strengths and preferences. 4.) Multiply numbers into the billions with ease!...
 Book Id: WPLBN0100003010 ► Abstract Description DetailsThis work is a brief set of notes; it has warrant neither to a claim of comprehensiveness nor of context. It represents the beginning of an odyssey toward realization of the classical ideal in mathematics education at the doctoral level....
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