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Frederick North, Lord North

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Frederick North, Lord North

The Right Honourable
The Earl of Guilford
KG PC
Portrait by Nathaniel Dance.
Prime Minister of Great Britain
In office
28 January 1770 – 22 March 1782
Monarch George III
Preceded by The Duke of Grafton
Succeeded by The Marquess of Rockingham
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
11 September 1767 – 27 March 1782
Monarch George III
Prime Minister The Duke of Grafton
himself
The Marquess of Rockingham
Preceded by Charles Townshend
Succeeded by Lord John Cavendish
Secretary of State for Home Affairs
In office
2 April 1783 – 19 December 1783
Monarch George III
Prime Minister The Duke of Portland
Preceded by Thomas Townshend
Succeeded by The Earl Temple
Member of Parliament
for Banbury
In office
1754 – 4 August 1790
Preceded by John Willes
Succeeded by Lord North
Personal details
Born (1732-04-13)13 April 1732
Piccadilly, Middlesex, England
Died 5 August 1792(1792-08-05) (aged 60)
Mayfair, Middlesex, England
Political party Tory
Other political
affiliations
Fox–North Coalition
(1783-1784)
Spouse(s) Anne Speke North
Children George, Lord North (1757–1802)
Lady Catherine North (1760–1817)
The Hon. Francis North (1761–1817)
Lady Charlotte North (d. 1849)
The Hon. Frederick North (1766–1827)
Lady Anne North (d. 1832)
Alma mater Trinity College, Oxford
Religion Church of England
Signature

Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford KG PC (13 April 1732 – 5 August 1792), more often known by his courtesy title, Lord North, which he used from 1752 until 1790, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782. He led Great Britain through most of the American War of Independence. He also held a number of other cabinet posts, including Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer.

North's reputation among historians has swung back and forth. It reached its nadir in the late nineteenth century when he was depicted as a creature of the king and an incompetent who lost the American colonies. In the early twentieth century a revisionism emphasized his strengths in administering the Treasury, handling the House of Commons, and in defending the Church of England. Herbert Butterfield, however, argued that his indolence was a barrier to efficient crisis management; he neglected his role in supervising the entire war effort.[1]

Contents

  • Early life (1732–1754) 1
  • Early political career (1754–70) 2
    • Chancellor of the Exchequer 2.1
  • Prime Minister (1770–82) 3
    • Appointment 3.1
    • Falklands Crisis 3.2
    • American War of Independence 3.3
    • Resignation 3.4
  • Fox-North Coalition (1783) 4
  • Later life (1783–92) 5
  • Legacy 6
  • Marriage and progeny 7
  • Titles from birth to death 8
  • Notes 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

Early life (1732–1754)

Lord North was born in London on 13 April 1732, at the family house at Prince Frederick might have been North's real father (and North the King's brother), a theory compatible with the Prince's reputation but supported by little real evidence.[3] His father, the first Earl, was at the time Lord of the Bedchamber to Prince Frederick, who stood as godfather to the infant.

North was descended from the 1st Earl of Sandwich and was related to Samuel Pepys and the 3rd Earl of Bute. He at times had a slightly turbulent relationship with his father Francis North, 1st Earl of Guilford, yet they were very close. In his early years the family was not wealthy, though their situation improved in 1735 when his father inherited property from his cousin.[4] Frederick's mother, Lady Lucy Montagu, died in 1734. His father remarried, but his stepmother, Elizabeth North, also died in 1745, when Frederick was thirteen. One of his stepbrothers was Lord Dartmouth, who remained a close friend for life.[5]

He was educated at Eton College between 1742 and 1748, and at Trinity College, Oxford where in 1750 he was awarded an MA. After leaving Oxford he travelled in Europe on the Grand Tour with Dartmouth, visiting Leipzig where he studied at the University of Leipzig. He visited Vienna, Milan, and Paris, returning to England in 1753.

Early political career (1754–70)

On 15 April 1754, North, then twenty-two, was elected unopposed as the Member of Parliament for the constituency of Banbury,[6] He served as an MP from 1754 to 1790 and joined the government as a junior Lord of the Treasury on 2 June 1759 during the Second Newcastle Ministry (a coalition of Newcastle and Pitt). He soon developed a reputation as a good administrator and parliamentarian, and was generally liked by his colleagues. Although he initially considered himself a Whig, he did not closely align with any of the Whig factions in Parliament and it became obvious to many contemporaries that his sympathies were largely Tory.[7]

In November 1763 he was chosen to speak for the Government concerning radical MP John Wilkes. Wilkes had made a savage attack on both the Prime Minister and the King in his newspaper The North Briton, which many thought libellous. North's motion that Wilkes be expelled from the House of Commons passed by 273 votes to 111. Wilkes' expulsion took place in his absence, as he had already fled to France following a duel.[8]

When a government headed by the Whig magnate Lord Rockingham came to power in 1765, North left his post and served for a time as a backbench MP. He turned down an offer by Rockingham to rejoin the government, not wanting to be associated with the Whig grandees that dominated the Ministry.[9]

He returned to office when Pitt returned to head a second government in 1766. North was appointed Joint Paymaster of the Forces in Pitt's ministry and became a Privy Counsellor. As Pitt was constantly ill, the government was effectively run by the Duke of Grafton, with North as one of its most senior members.[10]

Chancellor of the Exchequer

In December 1767, he succeeded Charles Townshend as Chancellor of the Exchequer. With the resignation of the secretary of state Henry Seymour Conway in early 1768, North became Leader of the Commons as well. He continued to serve when Pitt was succeeded by Grafton in October.

Prime Minister (1770–82)

In The State Tinkers (1780), James Gillray caricatured North (on his knees) and his allies as incompetent tinkers of the National Kettle. George III cries out in rapture in the rear.

Appointment

When the Duke of Grafton resigned as Prime Minister, North formed a government on 28 January 1770. His ministers and supporters tended to be known as Tories, though they were not a formal grouping and many had previously been Whigs. He took over with Great Britain in a triumphant state, following the patriotism and desire for decency in their private lives.[12]

Falklands Crisis

North's ministry had an early success during the Falklands Crisis in 1770 in which Great Britain faced down a Spanish attempt to seize the Falkland islands, nearly provoking a war.[11] Both France and Spain had been left unhappy by Great Britain's perceived dominance following the British victory in the Seven Years War. Spanish forces seized the British settlement on the Falklands and expelled the small British garrison. When Britain opposed the seizure, Spain sought backing from her ally, France. However, Louis XV did not believe his country was ready for war and in the face of a strong mobilisation of the British fleet the French compelled the Spanish to back down. Louis also dismissed Choiseul, the hawkish French Chief Minister, who had advocated war and a large invasion of Great Britain by the French.

The British government's prestige and popularity were enormously boosted by the incident. They had successfully managed to drive a wedge between France and Spain, and demonstrated the power of the Royal Navy – although it was suggested by critics that this gave Lord North a level of complacency and an incorrect belief that the European powers would not interfere in British colonial affairs. This was contrasted with the previous administration's failure to prevent France from annexing the Republic of Corsica, a British ally, during the Corsican Crisis two years earlier. Using his newfound popularity, North took the chance to appoint Lord Sandwich to the cabinet as First Lord of the Admiralty.

American War of Independence

French caricature on the government of Frederick North after the defeat of Grenada (1779).

Most of North's government was focused first on the growing problems with the American colonies and later on conducting the Philadelphia the British were unable to secure a decisive victory. In 1778 the French allied themselves with the American rebels, and Spain joined the war in 1779 as an ally of France, followed by the Dutch Republic in 1780. The British found themselves fighting a global war on four continents without a single ally. After 1778 the British switched the focus of their efforts to the defense of the West Indies, as their sugar wealth made them much more valuable to Great Britain than the Thirteen Colonies. In 1779 Great Britain was faced with the prospect of a major Franco-Spanish invasion, but the Armada of 1779 was ultimately a failure. Several peace initiatives fell through, and an attempt by Richard Cumberland to negotiate a separate peace with Spain ended in frustration.

The country's problems were added to by the First League of Armed Neutrality, which was formed to counter the British blockade strategy, and threatened British naval supplies from the Baltic. With severe manpower shortages, North's government passed an act abandoning previous statutes placing restrictions on Catholics serving in the military. This provoked an upsurge of anti-Catholic feelings and the formation of the Protestant Association leading to the Gordon Riots in London in June 1780.[13] For around a week the city was in the control of the mob, until the military was called out and martial law imposed.[14] In spite of these problems Great Britain's fortunes in the war in America had temporarily improved, following the failure of a Franco-American attack on Newport and the prosecution of a Southern Strategy which saw Great Britain capture Charleston and its garrison. During 1780 and 1781 the North government gained strength in the House of Commons.[15]

Resignation

This modern Silver medallion commemorates the motion of no confidence against Lord North on 27 February 1782 to end the American War of Independence. Subsequently Prime Minister Lord North resigned in March 1782.

North was the first British Prime Minister to be forced out of office by a motion of no confidence, resigning on 20 March 1782 on account of the British defeat at Yorktown the year before. In an attempt to end the war, he proposed the Conciliation Plan, in which he promised that Great Britain would eliminate all disagreeable acts if the colonies ended the war. The colonies rejected the plan, as their goal had become full independence.

In April 1782 it was suggested in cabinet by Lord Shelburne that North should be brought to public trial for his conduct of the American War, but the prospect was soon abandoned.[16] Ironically, in 1782 the war began to turn in Great Britain's favour again through naval victories, owing largely to policies adopted by Lord North and the Earl of Sandwich. The British naval victory at the Battle of the Saintes took place after the government's fall. Despite predictions that Gibraltar's fall was imminent, that fortress managed to hold out and was relieved. Great Britain was able to make a much more favourable peace in 1783 than had appeared likely at the time when North had been ousted. In spite of this North was critical of the terms agreed by the Shelburne government which he felt undervalued the strength of the British negotiating position.

Portrait (1753), oil on canvas, of Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford (1732–1792) by Pompeo Batoni (1708–1787)

Fox-North Coalition (1783)

In April 1783, North returned to power as Treaty of Paris which formally ended the American War of Independence.

The new Prime Minister, William Pitt the Younger, was not expected to last long and North, a vocal critic, still entertained hopes of regaining high office. In this, he was to be frustrated, as Pitt dominated the British political scene for the next twenty years, leaving both North and Fox in the political wilderness.

Later life (1783–92)

North was an active speaker until he began to go blind in 1786. He succeeded his father as 2nd Earl of Guilford on 4 August 1790 and entered the Fairleigh Dickinson University, ironically an American college, and the modernised abbey serves as a location for American students to study abroad in England.

Legacy

Lord North is today predominantly remembered as the Prime Minister "who lost America".[18]

A preserved 18th-century door on display in Edinburgh Castle shows a hangman's scaffold labelled "Lord Nord" carved by a prisoner captured during the American War of Independence.

Marriage and progeny

Anne Speke (before 1741–1797), wife of Lord North. Portrait after Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792)

On 20 May 1756 Lord North married Anne Speke (before 1741–1797), daughter of George Speke, MP, of Whitelackington in Somerset. She was the sole heiress of the Devonshire estates of the Drake family of Ash, which subsequently were sold piecemeal by Lord North.[19] By Anne he had six children:

  • Earl of Buckinghamshire, on 30 September 1785 and had issue. He married, secondly, Susan Coutts (died 24 September 1837), on 28 February 1796.
  • Catherine Anne North (1760–1766). Catherine died at the age of six after drowning in one of the ponds on the grounds of the North's former estate. Circumstances surrounding her death were of suspicious nature; however, no formal investigation ever took place, and her death was determined to be an accident.
  • Francis North, 4th Earl of Guilford (1761–1817)
  • Lady Charlotte North (died 25 October 1849), who married Lt. Col. The Hon. John Lindsay (15 March 1762 – 6 March 1826), son of the 5th Earl of Balcarres, on 2 April 1800.
  • Frederick North, 5th Earl of Guilford (1766–1827)
  • Lady Anne North (before 1783-18 January 1832), who married the 1st Earl of Sheffield on 20 January 1798 and had two children

Titles from birth to death

  • The Hon. Frederick North (1732–1752)
  • Lord North (1752–1754)
  • Lord North, MP (1754–1766)
  • The Rt. Hon. Lord North, MP (1766–1772)
  • The Rt. Hon. Lord North, KG, MP (1772–1790)
  • The Rt. Hon. Lord North, KG (1790)
  • The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Guilford, KG, PC (1790–1792)

Notes

  1. ^ Nigel Aston, "North, Frederick, 2nd Earl of Guilford" in David Loads, ed., Readers Guide to British History(2003) pp 960-62
  2. ^ Whitely p.1
  3. ^ Tuchman, Barbara (1984). The March of Folly: From Troy to Vietnam. New York: Knopf, 185.
  4. ^ Whiteley p.2
  5. ^ Whiteley p.6-7
  6. ^ Whiteley p.19
  7. ^ Whiteley p.24
  8. ^ Whiteley p.49
  9. ^ Whiteley p.51
  10. ^ Whiteley p.60
  11. ^ a b Rodger p.329
  12. ^ Whiteley p.329
  13. ^ Hibbert p.23-62
  14. ^ Hibbert p.84-140
  15. ^ Rodger p.343
  16. ^ Whiteley p.215
  17. ^ [2] History of Parliament article on Lord North by John Brooke.
  18. ^ Whiteley Title of the Book
  19. ^ Prince, John, (1643–1723) The Worthies of Devon, 1810 edition, London, p.331, footnote 2

References

  • Aston, Nigel. "North, Frederick, 2nd Earl of Guilford" in David Loads, ed., Readers Guide to British History(2003) pp 960–62; Historiography
  • Butterfield, Herbert. George III, Lord North, and the People, 1779–80 (1949)
  • Cannon, John. Lord North: The Noble Lord in the Blue Ribbon (1970), Short survey
  • Hibbert, Christopher. King Mob: The Story of Lord George Gordon and the Riots of 1780. London, 1958.
  • Rodger, N.A.M. Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain 1649–1815, (2007)
  • Smith, Charles Daniel. The Early Career of Lord North, the Prime Minister, (1979)
  • Valentine, Alan. Lord North (1967, 2 vol.), the standard biography
  • Whiteley, Peter. Lord North: The Prime Minister who lost America, (1996)
  • Lord North, The Correspondence of King George the Third with Lord North from 1768 to 1783, William Bodham Donne, ed. (1867) online edition
  •  

External links

  • More about Lord North on the Downing Street website.
Political offices
Preceded by
Charles Townshend
Paymaster of the Forces
1766–1767
With: George Cooke
Succeeded by
George Cooke
Thomas Townshend
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1767–1782
Succeeded by
Lord John Cavendish
Leader of the House of Commons
1767–1782
Succeeded by
Charles James Fox
Preceded by
The Duke of Grafton
Prime Minister of Great Britain
28 January 1770 – 22 March 1782
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Rockingham
Preceded by
Thomas Townshend
Home Secretary
1783
Succeeded by
The Earl Temple
Leader of the House of Commons
1783
With: Charles James Fox
Succeeded by
William Pitt the Younger
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
John Willes
Member of Parliament for Banbury
17541790
Succeeded by
Lord North
Academic offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Lichfield
Chancellor of the University of Oxford
1772–1792
Succeeded by
The Duke of Portland
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Duke of Bedford
President of the Foundling Hospital
1771–1792
Succeeded by
The Duke of Portland
Preceded by
The Earl of Thomond
Lord Lieutenant of Somerset
1774–1792
Succeeded by
The Earl Poulett
Preceded by
The Earl of Holdernesse
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
1778–1792
Succeeded by
William Pitt the Younger
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Francis North
Earl of Guilford
1790–1792
Succeeded by
George North
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